PANAMA:  12 to 28 April  2015        Jon Hornbuckle

I arranged a trip to Panama with much help from my friend Preston K Martin in Texas. My companions were Brian Foster and Rod Martins, with Gailon Brehm, a friend of PK, on the Darien leg. As we had seen many of the Panama birds in Costa Rica, our main aims were the birds that are effectively endemic to Panama – some of these also occur just over the border in Colombia but are not accessible due to security issues. 

The trip was very successful as we all had a good number of ticks and great views of Russet-crowned Quail-Dove, Dusky-backed Jacamar, Beautiful Treerunner, Coiba Spinetail, Speckled Antshrike, Pirre Warbler, Green-naped Tanager, Pirre Bush-Tanager and Viridian Dacnis. We also saw other scarce birds including Veraguan Mango, Violet-capped and Pirre Hummingbirds, Stripe-cheeked Woodpecker, Violet-throated Toucanet, Varied Solitaire, Yellow-green Finch and Tacarcuna Brush-Tanager. The only real disappointments were failing to find Bare-necked Umbrellabird and Maroon-chested Ground-Dove, both missed last year in Costa Rica, Choco Tinamou (not even heard) and Glow-throated Hummingbird, a rare bird very difficult to identify from Scintillant Hummingbird on the only mountain range where it is known to occur. Kilo took us to Volcan National Park where the bamboo was seeding and he had recently seen the Ground-Dove but no luck. The Umbrellabird does occur but is rarely seen and no lekking site is known. We were lucky with Speckled Antshrike, more often missed than seen, as we saw a male well at Nusagandi. Apparently there are two trails through the forested hillside down to the river, the one on the left being the more popular but Kilo has only found the bird on the right-hand trail, where we saw it.


We did not see the Harpy Eagle that had been showing well at the nest for months in the Darien. The tragic story is that the youngster apparently fell out of the nest about a week before we arrived because a local guy apparently shot the adult male after locals from another family would not agree to share the money being made by showing tourists the occupied nest. The adult female then deserted the nest. There had also been an occupied Crested Eagle nest on show but the youngster had recently fledged. We were considering visiting another active nest further away when we had a lucky break in seeing a fledged Crested Eagle at what was thought to be a new site.


Our main guide throughout was Kilo: Euclides Campos He speaks good English, is a very keen birder, knows all the calls and is proficient at play-back.  Isaac  Pizarro, another excellent birder and bird photographer, living in El Real, made all the Darien arrangements  before  and  during  the trip, including employing the local porters and cook: +507   6242   5220  Both guides are highly recommended.

Timing:  I had been advised to go in March/April. George Wagner went in March and found Pirre ridge was covered in mist every day till 11-12 am, making birding difficult. He thought Oct/Nov but would be better but Kilo said birding would be worse then as it would be very windy. The rainy season starts in April and seemed to have started in earnest just before we arrived. There were several heavy showers on the first few days, culminating in a violent thunder-storm directly over our campsite atop Pirre on the night of 15th, quite scary. We had been lucky because the day had been spent on the ridge in dry conditions, giving us time to see the two most difficult birds – Green-naped Tanager and Beautiful Treerunner. It was the third time Kilo had seen the Treerunner away from Cana in 4 visits. Having seen all the key birds on the ridge we decided to go down in case the heavy rain returned. In the event we only had minor rain from then onwards and seemed to have picked the best time – the only notable birds we did not hear or see were Black-crowned Antpitta (seen before in Costa Rica) and Choco Tinamou. It was cool at night on the ridge but cold-weather clothes were not necessary (neither were anti-malaria prophylactics).

Journey:  The Darien trip involved taxis, pickups, motor-boats, walking and trekking to reach Cerro Pirre near the Colombian border. It was very well-organised by Isaac and Kilo, the only difficulty being the two days of trekking/climbing to and from Pirre ridge from 600 - 1100 – 600m asl. The path was almost vertical at times and covered in thick mud. Gailon and I might not have made it without considerable help from Kilo and Isaac, and we were quite fit. Elsewhere the only issue was getting to the Jacamar site in the lowlands because the road was not drivable as the heavy rain had washed away 3 road bridges. Fortunately, Isaac was able to obtain permission from the police to take us on the river to the site in an Indian settlement. This journey was enlivened by the boat operator ramming a muddy bank at speed and being thrown into the river! Fortunately, Isaac managed to take control of the boat to save us having an undesirable swim.

We did not attempt to visit the Tacarcuna range near the border because it is deemed to be very unsafe due to the presence of FARC terrorists from Colombia. This means a wood-quail, quail-dove and tapaculo cannot be seen. 

The western trip was done in a 4x4 hired and driven by Kilo, with a little help from Brian. The roads were mostly in good condition and could probably have been driven in a standard car but we travelled long distances so some time would have been saved by having the 4x4. When late-on we decided to do a day-trip to Coiba Island on our spare day, Kilo was able to hire a suitable boat, by phone. This escapade was not cheap but was very enjoyable, thanks to fine, fairly calm weather and good birding. We saw the two endemic (IOC) birds and several endemic forms of other species, along with a good selection of birds on the sea, including two ticks for Kilo – Swallow-tailed Gull and Red-necked Phalarope (and we paid him!) – plus great views of a large pod of Spotted Dolphins.  

We spent the final full day birding in the Canal Zone, which I had visited before in 1987, well driven and guided by taxi-driver Ariel. A worthwhile exercise as the forest is still birdy and well-protected. On the final morning in Panama City Brian and I went sightseeing and birding along the Panama Bay shoreline around high-tide. Rod visited the Metropolitan Park reserve, a good birding site, and was rewarded by calling out an elusive Rosy Thrush-Tanager.

  Costs:  The trip costs were complicated:-  transport, guiding, porters, cook, camping equipment, accommodation, food and permits. A report by Diego Calderon of a trip similar to ours in the Darien in Sept 2014 gives most of the details for such a trip – see     



Many thanks for their help to Ariel the taxi driver, Bjorn Anderson, Alan Lewis, George Wallace, and especially to P K Martin, Isaac Pizarro and Euclides (Kilo) Campos.



April 12:  fly UK to Panama City on KLM, taxi to Hotel Marparaiso, $55 for a room for 3, meet Kilo.


April 13:  04.45 drive to Darien NP with Kilo, stopping at Meteti to pay $407 at bank for NP permits, buy supplies, arrive at Yaviza at 13.00. Kilo and Isaac sort out permits. 14.45-15.30 boat to El Real, taxi and walk to Rancho Frio, arrive at 18.30 overnight at Ranger station.


April 14:  walk to Rancho  Plástico  camp at 600m asl, good birding – Choco Screech-Owl and Spot-crowned Barbet. Heavy rain 14.00 – 16.00, OVN in tents.


April 15:  hard trek to Cerro Pirre camp, 1115m asl, birding gives Pirre Hummingbird, Bush-Tanager and Warbler, Russet-crowned Quail-Dove and Varied Solitaire. OVN in tents with some heavy rain.


April 16:  day on Pirre ridge, birding slow at first but eventually very successful with good views of Beautiful Treerunner, Violet-throated Toucanet and Green-naped Tanager. A violent thunderstorm starts at 17.00 with rain pouring down like a waterfall and continues well into the night.


April 17:  decide to leave a day early in view of bad weather and birding success so trek back down to Rancho Plastico, seeing Yellow-browed Shrike-Vireo but no sign of Choco Tinamou.


April 18:  walk to Rancho Frio, with good view of fledged juv Crested Eagle; OVN at Ranger station.


April 19:  morning birding up La Antena trail gives good views of Viridian Dacnis. Walk and taxi to El Real. OVN at Señora  Savina’s guesthouse.


April 20:  boat to Llano Largo on the Rio Tuira for Dusky-backed Jacamar and Double-banded Greytail, then to Yaviza and drive to Panama city, with a stop at Torti restaurant for hummingbird feeders.   OVN at Hotel Marparaiso.                                                       

April 21:  Day at Cerro Azul, with two visits to the feeders, with Kilo driving a 4x4 hire-car. OVN at La Posada de Ferhisse. 


April 22:  early departure to Ibe Igar trail, Nusagandi till noon, lunch at Pacora; drive to San Felix in Chiriqui province, western Panama. OVN at Hostal San Felix (also known as Hostal Cholo).


April 23:  breakfast at Volcan town, bird Los Quetzales Trail at Volcan Baru NP, return to Volcan town for lunch and on to Volcan Lakes, nearby coffee plantation Cuesea de Piedra. OVN at Hostal Boquete.


April 24:   Boquete town to Fortuna Road, bird 3 trails including Bushmaster Trail; have puncture repaired at Gualaca, drive from Gualaca to San Felix. OVN Hostal Cholo.


April 25:  San Felix to Cerro Santiago; return to San Felix ( lunch) and on to Las Lajas Beach. Drive to Santiago City and on to Santa Catalina town. OVN at Hospedaye in Santa Catalina.


April 26:  boat to Coiba Island from Playa Arrimadero, bird Hot Spring trail, drive 7 hours to Panama city. Farewell to Kilo.  OVN Hotel Marparaiso.


April 27:  bird  the Canal Zone in Ariel’s taxi, visiting Summit ponds, Ammo Dump ponds, Club Tarpon and Pipeline Road.


April 28:  BF and JH visit the wader roost before high tide, the old city ruins and the renovated city. RM birds the Metropolitan Park reserve. To airport by hotel bus (free) at 15.15, flight to Amsterdam at 19.05.




  1. Great Tinamou Tinamus major: Heard most days with one seen on Pipeline Road.
  2. Little Tinamou Crypturellus soui: Only heard once.
  3. Black-bellied Whistling-Duck Dendrocygna autumnalis: 4 at the Ammo Dump ponds.
  4. Crested Guan Penelope purpurascens: 2 at Cerro Pirre.
  5. Great Curassow Craz rubre: heard on Cerro Pirre.
  6. Marbled Wood-Quail Odontophorus gujanensis: heard on the trek to Cerro Pirre.
  7. Black-eared Wood-Quail Odontophorus: heard several times on Cerro Pirre including very near the campsite but could not be seen.
  8. Tawny-faced Quail Rhynchortyx cinctus: a roosting bird, found by Isaac at El Plastico, gave very close views.
  9. Pied-billed Grebe Podilymbus podiceps: 2 at Volcan Lakes.
  10. Galapagos Shearwater Puffinus subalaris: 8 on journey to Coiba Island.
  11. Brown Pelican Pelecanus occidentalis: seen in great numbers from the Pacific shoreline.
  12. Brown Booby Sula leucogaster: 3 on the Coiba trip.
  13. Nazca Booby Sula granti: 3 on the Coiba trip.
  14. Neotropic Cormorant  Phalacrocorax brasilianus: numerous in Panama Bay.
  15. Anhinga Anhinga anhinga: one on the boat-ride to El Real.
  16. Magnificent Frigatebird Fregata magnificens: 15 on journey to Coiba Is.,10+ along the Panama Bay shoreline.
  17. Rufescent Tiger-Heron Tigrisoma lineatum: a juv near the Ammo Dump ponds.
  18. Fasciated Tiger-Heron Tigrisoma fasciatum:  one at Rancho Frio.
  19. Great Blue Heron Ardea herodias: 2 in the Canal Zone.
  20. Cocoi Heron Ardea cocoi: 4 on the boat-ride to El Real and back.
  21. Great Egret Casmerodius albus: fairly common in the lowlands.
  22. Snowy Egret Egretta thula: fairly common in the lowlands.
  23. Little Blue Heron Egretta caerulea: a few in the lowlands.
  24. Tricoloured Heron Egretta tricolor: 1 in Panama Bay on 28th.
  25. Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis: common in the lowlands.
  26. Green Heron Butorides virescens: 4+ at the Summit ponds and 2 singles elsewhere. Striated Heron also occurs in Panama but we did not identify any.
  27. Capped Heron  Pilherodius pileatus: 3 along Rio Tuira.
  28. Yellow-crowned Night-Heron Nyctanassa violacea: 3 on the shoreline on 28th.
  29. Boat-billed Heron Cochlearius cochlearius: 10 at Summit Ponds, of the dark panamensis form.
  30. White Ibis Eudocimus albus: Up to 10 in Panama Bay on 28th.
  31. Wood Stork Mycteria americana: 10 near El Real, 6 on 20th and 1 in Panama Bay on 28th.
  32. Black Vulture Coragyps atratus: common and widespread.
  33. Turkey Vulture Cathartes aura: common and widespread.
  34. King Vulture Sarcoramphus papa: a juv soaring between Rancho Frio and El Plastico and 2 over Coiba Is.
  35. Osprey Pandion haliaetus: 1 at Fortuna NP.
  36. Grey-headed Kite Leptodon cayanensis: 1 at Rancho Frio.
  37. Hook-billed Kite Chondrohierax  uncinatus: one at El Real.
  38. Swallow-tailed Kite Elanoides forficatus: up to 6 seen on 7 days.
  39. Plumbeous Kite Ictinia plumbea: singles on 3 days.
  40. Black-collared Hawk  Busarellus nigricollis: 2 on the way to El Real on 13th.
  41. Crane Hawk  Geranospiza caerulescens: 2 singles in the Darien lowlands.
  42. Barred Hawk Leucopternis princeps: 2 on the trek down from Pirre to Plastico and 4 at Fortuna NP.
  43. Semiplumbeous Hawk Leucopternis semiplumbea: one at Rancho Frio.
  44. White Hawk Leucopternis albicollis costaricensis: singles on 3 days including Coiba Is and 4 at Rancho Frio.
  45. Common Black-Hawk Buteogallus anthracinus: 2 while travelling on 3 days.
  46. Great Black-Hawk Buteogallus urubitinga: one on the river journey on 20th.
  47. Grey-lined Hawk Buteo nitidus: 2 on the journey back to Panama city.
  48. Roadside Hawk Buteo magnirostris: 5 on the first journey to Rancho Frio and 3 singles elsewhere.
  49. Broad-winged Hawk Buteo platypterus: 2 soaring over Pirre and 1 over Volcan Baru.
  50. Short-tailed Hawk Buteo brachyurus: one on the first journey to Rancho Frio.
  51. Swainson’s Hawk Buteo swainsoni: a few in a migrating flock on 13th , most of the flock being Turkey Vultures.
  52. Zone-tailed Hawk Buteo albonotatus: one at Cerro Azul.
  53. Crested Eagle Morphnus  guianensis: a recently fledged juv from an unknown nest gave great views above Rancho Frio.
  54. Black-and-white Hawk-Eagle Spizaetus melanoleucus: one in flight at Llano Largo.
  55. Ornate Hawk-Eagle Spizaetus ornatus: heard calling and displaying birds were seen above us on the slopes of Cerro Pirre, also heard at Fortuna NP.
  56. Red-throated Caracara Ibycter americanus: heard calling noisily on the trek to Rancho Frio.
  57. Crested Caracara Polyborus cheriway: 2 seen on 3 dates while travelling.
  58. Yellow-headed Caracara Milvago chimachima: fairly common with up to 10 a day.
  59. American Kestrel Falco sparverius : 2 singles while travelling.
  60. Barred Forest-Falcon Micrastur ruficollis: one at Fortuna NP, heard calling on Cerro Pirre ridge.
  61. Bat Falcon Falco rufigularis: singles at  Pirre camp and Rancho Frio.
  62. Moorhen Gallinula chloropus: 20 in the Canal Zone and a few elsewhere.
  63. American Coot Fulica americana: 3 in the Canal Zone.
  64. Grey-necked Wood-Rail  Aramides cajanea: one on 27, heard on 26th
  65. Limpkin Aramus guarauna: one on the boat to El Real and in the Canal Zone.
  66. Southern Lapwing Vanellus chilensis: 20+ in Panama Bay and 2 on 2 travel days.
  67. Grey Plover Pluvialis squatarola: 10+ in Panama Bay.
  68. Black-necked Stilt Himantopus mexicanus:  one in the Canal Zone and 3 in Panama Bay.
  69. Northern Jacana Jacana spinosa: one at Volcan Lakes.
  70. Wattled Jacana Jacana jacana: 4 on the boat to El Real and 10 in the Canal Zone. Panamanian birds belong to the dark race hypomelaena (no chestnut on adults), only found here and in Colombia.
  71. Lesser Yellowlegs Tringa flavipes: one at Volcan Lakes.
  72. Willet Catoptrophorus semipalmatus: 50 in Panama Bay and 1 on the Coiba trip.
  73. Spotted Sandpiper Actitis macularia: 2 on the boat to El Real, 4 on the Coiba trip and 6 in Panama Bay.
  74. Solitary Sandpiper Tringa solitaria: 4 at Volcan Lakes and 1 in the Canal Zone.
  75. Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus hudsonicus : one on the Coiba trip and 4 in Panama Bay.
  76. Marbled Godwit Limosa fedoa: 12 in Panama Bay.
  77. Red-necked Phalarope Phalaropus lobatus : 50+ in the sea on the Coiba trip. A tick for Kilo!
  78. Laughing Gull Larus atricilla: Nearly 1000 birds were seen at Panama Bay.
  79. Swallow-tailed Gull Creagrus furcatus: one seen well on the sea before flying off, on the way back from Coiba thought to be the second confirmed record in Panama since the only previous record in 1957.
  80. Brown Noddy Anous stolidus: common near Coiba.
  81. Sooty Tern Onychoprion fuscatus: 10 near Coiba.
  82. Sandwich Tern Sterna sandvicensis : 100 on the Coiba trip.
  83. Elegant Tern Sterna elegans: 3+ on the Coiba trip.  
  84. Royal Tern Sterna maxima: 50 on the Coiba trip and 2 at Panama Bay.
  85. American Black Tern Chlidonias surinamensis: 50 on the Coiba trip.
  86. Pale-vented Pigeon Patagioenas cayennensis: a few sightings including 1 on Coiba.
  87. Scaled Pigeon Patagioenas speciosa:  2 at Cerro Azul.
  88. Band-tailed Pigeon Patagioenas fasciata: up to 40 in the Western hills and mountains.
  89. Short-billed Pigeon Patagioenas nigrirostris:  heard only, at Cerro Azul.
  90. Plumbeous Pigeon Patagioenas plumbea: 2 singles at the lower elevations of Cerro Pirre.
  91. Ruddy Ground-Dove Columbina talpacoti: fairly common in the lowlands throughout with good numbers in the Canal area and around the city ruins.
  92. Blue Ground-Dove Claravis pretiosa: one on the way back to Panama city from El Real.
  93. White-tipped Dove Leptotila verreauxi: small numbers throughout the west.
  94. Grey-chested Dove Leptotila cassini:  only 1 identified, near Rancho Frio.
  95. Brown-backed (Azuero) Dove  Leptotila battyi: 4 or 5 on Coiba.
  96. Buff-fronted Quail-Dove  Geotrygon costaricensis: one heard at Cerro Santiago.
  97. Ruddy Quail-Dove Geotrygon montana: one flushed from the Pirre ridge trail.
  98. Russet-crowned Quail-Dove Geotrygon goldmani:  4 on Cerro Pirre. This species is restricted to the Darien highlands.
  99. Purplish-backed Quail-Dove Geotrygon lawrencii: one at Cerro Azul.
  100. Mourning Dove Zenaida macroura: 4 near Volcan.
  101. Brown-throated Parakeet Aratinga pertinax: 3 at Las Lajas Beach, Chiriqui.
  102. Great Green Macaw Ara ambigua: common on the slopes of Cerro Pirre.
  103. Red-and-green Macaw Ara chloroptera: heard on the trek up Cerro Pirre.
  104. Scarlet Macaw Ara : 2 on Coiba Is, the only place in Panama where it occurs.
  105. Spectacled Parrotlet Forpus conspicillatus: one while travelling to Rancho Frio.
  106. Barred Parakeet  Bolborhynchus lineola: 2 above Volcan.
  107. Orange-chinned Parakeet Brotogeris jugularis: locally numerous.
  108. Blue-fronted Parrotlet Touit dilectissima: one on the trek to Pirre camp.
  109. Brown-hooded Parrot Pionopsitta haematotis: heard on the slopes of Pirre.
  110. Blue-headed Parrot Pionus menstruus: fairly common.
  111. Red-lored Parrot Amazona autumnalis: 30 on Coiba.
  112. Mealy Amazon Amazona farinosa: probably the commonest parrot.
  113. Squirrel Cuckoo Piaya cayana: a few records.
  114. Greater Ani Crotophaga major: one on the way to El Real and 5 on the way back.
  115. Smooth-billed Ani Crotophaga ani: seemed to be common on the way to El Real but not noted after that.
  116. Chocó Screech-Owl Otus centralis: one called in near Rancho Frio.
  117. Crested Owl Lophostrix cristata: one distantly calling near Rancho Frio.
  118. Spectacled Owl Pulsatrix perspicillata: 1 roosting near Summit ponds was seen by BF and Arial but flew off before RM and JH could see it, probably disturbed by agouties.
  119. Costa Rican Pygmy-Owl Glaucidium costaricanum: one heard above Volcan. 
  120. Central American Pygmy-Owl Glaucidium griseiceps: one in daylight at Rancho Frio and 1 heard on the trek to Pirre camp.
  121. Mottled Owl Ciccaba virgata: one heard near the camp at Cerro Pirre.
  122. Short-tailed Nighthawk Lurocalis semitorquatus: heard near Rancho Frio.
  123. Pauraque Nyctidromus albicollis: one at Cerro Santiago and heard at Cerro Azul.
  124. White-collared Swift Streptoprocne zonaris: small numbers on 3 days.
  125. Vaux’s Swift Chaetura vauxi: 2 at Cerro Santiago.
  126. Band-rumped Swift Chaetura spinicauda: only noted at Cerro Azul.
  127. Lesser Swallow-tailed Swift Panyptila cayennensis: 2 at Cerro Azul.
  128. Green Hermit Phaethornis guy coruscus: one or 2 most days in the Darien and on 2 days in the west.
  129. Pale-bellied Hermit Phaethornis anthophilus: singles when traveling to and from the Darien.
  130. Long-billed Hermit (Western Long-tailed Hermit) Phaethornis longirostris: singles at Cerro Azul and Nusagandi.
  131. Stripe-throated Hermit Phaethornis striigularis: singles at Rancho Plastico and Pipeline Road.
  132. Tooth-billed Hummingbird Androdon aequatorialis: 3 or 4 on Cerro Pirre.
  133. Violet Sabrewing Campylopterus hemileucurus:  one above Volcan.
  134. Scaly-breasted Hummingbird Phaeochroa cuvierii: 3 at Torti feeders and one at Las Lajas Beach, Chiriqui.
  135. White-necked Jacobin Florisuga mellivora: a few sightings.
  136. Veraguas Mango Anthracothorax veraguensis: a male in the lowlands on 24th took some finding.
  137. Black-throated Mango Anthracothorax nigricollis: singles on the way to and from Rancho Frio.
  138. Green Thorntail Discosura conversii: 4 in Fortuna NP.
  139. Rufous-crested Coquette Lophornis delattrei: 2 at Cerro Azul feeders.
  140. Garden Emerald Chlorostilbon assimilis: 2 at Cerro Santiago and 3+ on Coiba.
  141. (Violet-)Crowned Woodnymph Thalurania colombica venusta: a few sightings.
  142. Green-crowned Woodnymph Thalurania fannyi: one near Rancho Plastico and 2 on Pirre ridge.
  143. Fiery-throated Hummingbird Panterpe insignis: 2 at Los Quetzal trail.
  144. Sapphire-throated Hummingbird Lepidopyga coeruleogularis: 2 at the Torti feeders and 1 at Cerro Santiago.
  145. Violet-capped Hummingbird Goldmania violiceps: 2 of this Panama endemic at the Cerro Azul feeders.
  146. Pirre/Rufous-cheeked Hummingbird Goethalsia bella: one or 2 daily on Cerro Pirre.
  147. Blue-chested Hummingbird Amazilia amabilis: 3 singles in Darien NP and one on Cerro Azul.
  148. Snowy-bellied Hummingbird Amazilia edward: 2 of the blue-black-tailed niveoventer at Cerro Santiago, Coiba Island and several at the Cerro Azul feeders, here of the rufous-tailed nominate race saucerottia.
  149. Rufous-tailed Hummingbird Amazilia tzacatl: fairly common throughout the lowlands with 6 at Coiba.
  150. White-tailed Emerald Elvira chionura: 2 at Cerro Santiago.
  151. White-vented Plumeleteer Chalybura buffonii: one in the Canal Zone.
  152. Bronze-tailed Plumeleteer Chalybura urochrysia: at least 1 on the feeders at Cerro Azul.
  153. White-bellied Mountain-gem Lampornis hemileucus: 2 at Fortuna NP.
  154. White-throated Mountain-gem Lampornis castaneoventris: 3 at Quetzal trail
  155. Purple-throated Mountain-gem Lampornis calolaema:  3 at Cerro Santiago.
  156. Green-crowned Brilliant Heliodoxa jacula: singles on Pirre ridge and in Fortuna NP.
  157. Magnificent Hummingbird Eugenes fulgens: 3 at Los Quetzal trail.
  158. Greenish Puffleg Haplophaedia aureliae caucensis : one or two on Cerro Pirre ridge.
  159. Purple-crowned Fairy Heliothryx barroti: one near Cerro Pirre camp.
  160. Long-billed Starthroat Heliomaster longirostris: singles at Cerro Azul feeders and Cerro Santiago, 2 at Fortuna NP.
  161. Volcano Hummingbird Selasphorus flammula: 8 at Quetzal trail.
  162. Scintillant Hummingbird Selasphorus scintilla: 2 females at Quetzal trail and 2+ on Cerro Santiago.
  163. Blue-throated Goldentail Hylocharis eliciae: a male on Coiba.
  164. (Western) White-tailed Trogon Trogon chionurus: 4 in the Canal area.
  165. Gartered (Northern Violaceous) Trogon Trogon caligatus: one on Cerro Azul.
  166. Lattice-tailed Trogon Trogon clathratus: one at Fortuna NP.
  167. Collared Trogon Trogon collaris extimus: one or 2 on Cerro Pirre.
  168. Slaty-tailed Trogon Trogon massena hoffmanni: one near Rancho Plastico, 2 on Cerro Azul and in the Canal Zone.
  169. Resplendent Quetzal Pharomachrus mocinno: a male and a female on Los Quetzal trail.
  170. Tody Motmot Hylomanes momotula: one near Rancho Plastico.
  171. Blue-crowned (Whooping) Motmot Momotus momota: one on Pipeline Road.
  172. Rufous Motmot Baryphthengus martii semirufus: one at Cerro Azul feeders, heard on Cerro Pirre.
  173. Broad-billed Motmot Electron platyrhynchum:  one in the Canal Area, heard on Cerro Pirre and in Fortuna NP.
  174. Ringed Kingfisher Ceryle torquata: 2 on Rio Tuira and at Summit ponds.
  175. Green Kingfisher Chloroceryle americana: one at Playa Arrimadero and at Summit ponds.
  176. Amazon Kingfisher Chloroceryle amazona: 2 from thr boat to Yaviza and 3 in the Canal Zone.
  177. American Pygmy Kingfisher Chloroceryle aenea: one at Summit ponds.
  178. Black-breasted Puffbird Notharchus pectoralis: 3 between Rancho Plastico and Rancho Frio, heard elsewhere.
  179. Pied Puffbird Notharchus tectus: singles at Llano Largo and in the Canal Zone.
  180. White-whiskered Puffbird Malacoptila panamensis: one near Rancho Plastico.
  181. Grey-cheeked Nunlet Nonnula ruficapilla: one at Rancho Frio.
  182. White-fronted Nunbird Monasa morphoeus: 2 on the higher slopes of Pirre.
  183. Dusky-backed Jacamar Brachygalba salmoni: one, possibly 2, of this Darien speciality at Llano Largo.
  184. Spot-crowned Barbet Capito maculicoronatus rubrilateralis: up to 5 daily on the higher slopes of Pirre.
  185. Red-headed Barbet Eubucco bourcierii: heard at Fortuna NP.
  186. Prong-billed Barbet Semnornis frantzii: 3 at Cerra Santiago and at Fortuna NP.
  187. Blue-throated Toucanet Aulacorhynchus coeruleogularis: heard at Cerro Santiago, a split off Emerald Toucanet.
  188. Violet-throated Toucanet Aulacorhynchus cognatus: 2 on Cerro Pirre ridge and 1 just below it, another split from Emerald Toucanet.
  189. Collared Aracari Pteroglossus torquatus: one or 2 near Rancho Frio.
  190. Fiery-billed Aracari Pteroglossus franzii: 2 above Volcan.
  191. Yellow-eared Toucanet Selenidera spectabilis: 3 near Rancho Plastico and 1 at Cerro Azul.
  192. Keel-billed Toucan Ramphastos sulfuratus: 2 at Cerro Azul and heard at Rancho Frio.
  193. Black-mandibled Toucan Ramphastos ambiguus: 2 at Rancho Frio.
  194. Olivaceous Piculet Picumnus olivaceus: 2 at Llano Largo.
  195. Acorn Woodpecker Melanerpes formicivorus: singles above Volcan and at Cerro Santiago.
  196. Black-cheeked Woodpecker Melanerpes pucherani: 2 at Rancho Frio and 1 Pipeline Road.
  197. Red-crowned Woodpecker Melanerpes rubricapillus: common in the west, 2 on Coiba and 2 at El Real.
  198. Red-rumped Woodpecker Veniliornis kirkii: 2 near El Real and one on Coiba.
  199. Stripe-cheeked Woodpecker Piculus callopterus: a pair of this endemic near El Real.
  200. Golden-olive Woodpecker Colaptes rubiginosus: one showed well along the Fortuna road.
  201. Cinnamon Woodpecker Celeus loricatus: 2 at Pirre camp, near Rancho Frio and on Pipeline Road.
  202. Lineated Woodpecker Dryocopus lineatus: one at Volcan lakes.
  203. Crimson-crested Woodpecker Campephilus melanoleucos malherbii: one between Rancho Plastico and El Real.
  204. Crimson-bellied Woodpecker Campephilus haematogaster: one near Rancho Frio. HBW’s ”Checklist of the Birds of the World” has split this Western form as Splendid Woodpecker, C. splendens, an unexpected, potential tick.
  205. Sapayoa  Sapayoa aenigma: singles below Pirre camp and at Nusagandi.
  206. Slaty Spinetail Synallaxis brachyura:  2 at Volcan lakes.
  207. Coiba Spinetail Cranioleuca dissita: a pair at Hot Spring trail, Coiba.
  208. Double-banded Greytail Xenerpestes minlosi: 2 or 3 at Llano Largo.
  209. Beautiful Treerunner Margarornis bellulus: good views of 2 of this now difficult Darien endemic on Cerro Pirre ridge.
  210. Ruddy Treerunner Margarornis rubiginosus: one at Cerro Santiago (BF).
  211. Buffy Tuftedcheek Pseudocolaptes lawrencii: one with a mixed flock at Cerro Santiago.
  212. Lineated Foliage-gleaner Syndactyla subalaris: 2 on Cerro Pirre ridge.
  213. Slaty-winged Foliage-gleaner Philydor fuscipennis:  fairly common on Pirre with up to 6 daily and 1 at Nusagandi.
  214. Buff-throated Foliage-gleaner Automolus ochrolaemus:  2 of the Darien race pallidigularis at Rancho Frio and one of the exsertus at Volcan Lakes.
  215. Spotted Barbtail Premnoplex brunnescens: heard at Cerro Santiago.
  216. Plain Xenops Xenops minutus: a few singles on Pirre and 2 on Pipeline road.
  217. Plain-brown Woodcreeper Dendrocincla fuliginosa ridgwayi: one at Fortuna NP, heard near Rancho Plasticola.
  218. Olivaceous Woodcreeper Sittasomus griseicapillus veraguensis: heard at Cerro Azul.
  219. Long-tailed Woodcreeper Deconychura longicauda darienensis: one near Rancho Plastico.
  220. Wedge-billed Woodcreeper Glyphorynchus spirurus: 2 near Rancho Frio and 1 at Fortuna NP.
  221. Northern Barred-Woodcreeper Dendrocolaptes sanctithomae: 2 near Pirre Camp and 1 near Rancho Plastico.
  222. Cocoa Woodcreeper Xiphorhynchus susurrans: singles at Rancho Frio and Cerro Azul, 2 heard near Rancho Plastico.
  223. Black-striped Woodcreeper Xiphorhynchus lachrymosus: 2 near Rancho Frio.
  224. Spotted Woodcreeper Xiphorhynchus erythropygius: 3 singles high on Pirre.
  225. Streak-headed Woodcreeper Lepidocolaptes souleyetii: 2 singles in the west and 1 on Pipeline Road.
  226. Brown-billed Scythebill Campylorhamphus pusillus: 2 singles high on the slopes of Cerro Pirre.
  227. Red-billed Scythebill Campylorhamphus trochilirostris: a pair at Llano Largo.
  228. Fasciated Antshrike Cymbilaimus lineatus: a pair on Pipeline Road.
  229. Great Antshrike Taraba major: one at Llano Largo.
  230. Barred Antshrike Thamnophilus doliatus: 3 on Coiba.
  231. Black Antshrike Thamnophilus nigriceps: 2 at Llano Largo.
  232. Western Slaty/ Black-crowned Antshrike Thamnophilus atrinucha: fairly common throughout.
  233. Speckled/Spiny-faced Antshrike Xenornis setifrons: a male singing near the Ibe Igar trail at Nusagandi.
  234. Russet Antshrike Thamnistes anabatinus: one or 2 daily on Cerro Pirre.
  235. Plain Antvireo Dysithamnus mentalis: 2 on Pirre ridge, 3 at Volcan Baru NP and 1 at Fortuna NP.
  236. Spot-crowned Antvireo Dysithamnus puncticeps: 2 near Rancho Plastico.
  237. Checker-throated Antwren Myrmotherula fulviventris: one near Rancho Plastico.
  238. White-flanked Antwren Myrmotherula axillaris albigula: a few on the lower slopes of Pirre..
  239. Slaty Antwren Myrmotherula schisticolor: a few sightings throughout.
  240. Rufous-winged Antwren Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus exiguus: heard at Rancho Frio.
  241. Dot-winged Antwren Microrhopias quixensis: one or 2 on the higher slopes of Pirre.
  242. Dusky Antbird Cercomacra tyrannina: 4 at Pipeline Road and heard elsewhere.
  243. Jet Antbird Cercomacra nigricans:  one at Llano Largo.
  244. Bare-crowned Antbird Gymnocichla nudiceps: one at Llano Largo.
  245. Chestnut-backed Antbird Myrmeciza exsul cassini: one at Llano Largo, heard near El Real and Rancho Frio.
  246. Dull-mantled Antbird Myrmeciza laemosticta: one near Rancho Plastico.
  247. Zeledon’s/Immaculate Antbird Myrmeciza immaculate: 3 with an ant-swarm in Fortuna NP.
  248. Spotted Antbird Hylophylax naevioides: 2 on Pipeline Road.
  249. Wing-banded Antbird Myrmornis torquata stictoptera:  one near Rancho Plastico with another heard.
  250. Bicoloured Antbird Gymnopithys leucaspis: heard on Pirre.
  251. Ocellated Antbird Phaenostictus mcleannani: 2 at an antswarm on Pirre.
  252. Black-faced Antthrush Formicarius analis panamensis: frequently heard on the lower slopes of Pirre, the only one seen being by RM at Summit ponds.
  253. Rufous-breasted Antthrush Formicarius rufipectus: heard on Pirre ridge and at Fortuna NP.
  254. Spectacled/ Streak-chested Antpitta Hylopezus perspicillatus: one near Rancho Plastico, heard near Rancho Frio and Nusagandi.
  255. Silvery-fronted Tapaculo Scytalopus argentifrons: heard at Fortuna NP and Cerro Santiago.
  256. Choco Tapaculo  Scytalopus chocoensis: heard a few times on Pirre ridge.
  257. Paltry Tyrannulet  Zimmerius vilissimus: singles at Rancho Frio and Cerro Azul.
  258. Brown-capped Tyrannulet Ornithion brunneicapillum:  one at Rancho Frio.
  259. Southern Beardless-Tyrannulet Camptostoma obsoletum flaviventer: one on Coiba.
  260. Mouse-coloured Tyrannulet Tyrannulus : 2 at Cerro Santiago
  261. Forest Elaenia Myiopagis gaimardii: one at Llano Largo.
  262. Grey Elaenia Myiopagis caniceps: one at Rancho Frio.
  263. Yellow-bellied Elaenia Elaenia flavogaster: 5 on Coiba.
  264. Lesser Elaenia Elaenia chiriquensis: one on Coiba.
  265. Mountain Elaenia Elaenia frantzii: 10 in the Cerro Punta below Volcan Baru and a few at Cerro Santiago.
  266. Olive-striped Flycatcher Mionectes olivaceus: 4 hederaceus on Pirre and 1 on Cerro Azul.
  267. Ochre-bellied Flycatcher Mionectes oleaginous: heard at Rancho Frio.
  268. Slaty-capped Flycatcher Leptopogon superciliaris transandinus: one on Pirre.
  269. Yellow-green Tyrannulet Phylloscartes flavovirens: 2 on the slopes of Cerro Pirre.
  270. Scale-crested Pygmy-Tyrant Lophotriccus pileatus: 2 singles on Cerro Pirre and a few heard elsewhere.
  271. Pale-eyed Pygmy-Tyrant Atalotriccus pilaris: one at Las Lajas beach, Chiriqui.
  272. Southern Bentbill Oncostoma olivaceum: 2+ in the Canal Zone.
  273. Common Tody-Flycatcher Todirostrum cinereum: 2 on Cerro Santiago and Pipeline Road.
  274. Brownish Twistwing Cnipodectes subbrunneus: one on Pipeline Road.
  275. Olivaceous Flatbill Rhynchocyclus olivaceus: heard at Rancho Frio.
  276. Yellow-margined Flycatcher  Tolmomyias flavotectus: one near Rancho Frio.
  277. Yellow-breasted Flycatcher Tolmomyias flaviventris: one at Llano Largo.
  278. White-throated Spadebill Platyrinchus mystaceus:  one on Cerro Pirre.
  279. Golden-crowned Spadebill Platyrinchus coronatus: 2 singles on the lower slopes of Cerro Pirre.
  280. Northern Royal-Flycatcher Onychorhynchus mexicanus: heard on Pipeline Road.
  281. Ruddy-tailed Flycatcher Terenotriccus erythrurus: one above Rancho Plastico.
  282. Sulphur-rumped Flycatcher Myiobius sulphureipygius aureatus: 2 near Rancho Plastico
  283. Tufted-Flycatcher Mitrephanes phaeocercus: one near Rancho Plastico.
  284. Dark Pewee Contopus lugubris: one or 2 in the western hills.
  285. Eastern Wood-Pewee Contopus virens: one below Pirre camp.
  286. Western Wood-Pewee Contopus sordidulus: one on Pirre ridge.
  287. Tropical Pewee Contopus cinereus:  2 on Coiba.
  288. Yellow-bellied Flycatcher Empidonax flaviventris: one in Volcan NP.
  289. Alder Flycatcher Empidonax alnorum: one at Cerro Santiago.
  290. Acadian Flycatcher Empidonax virescens: one below Pirre camp.
  291. White-throated Flycatcher Empidonax albigularis: 2 near Volcan lakes.
  292. Yellowish Flycatcher Empidonax flavescens: 2 in the lowlands on 25th (RM).
  293. Black-capped Flycatcher  Empidonax atriceps: one below Respingo Ranger Station, Volcan NP.
  294. Long-tailed Tyrant Colonia colonus: one at Llano Larguo.
  295. Bright-rumped (Flammulated) Attila Attila spadiceus (flammulatus): commonly heard on the lower slopes of Pirre.
  296. Speckled Mourner Laniocera rufescens: one at Rancho Frio.
  297. Rufous Mourner Rhytipterna holerythra: singles near rancho Plastico and Pipeline Road.
  298. Choco Sirystes Sirystes albogriseus: 3 at Rancho Frio.
  299. Dusky-capped Flycatcher Myiarchus tuberculifer: a few in the west.
  300. Panama Flycatcher Myiarchus panamensis: 2 on Cerro Santiago, 3 on Coiba and one in the Canal Zone.
  301. Lesser Kiskadee Philohydor lector: one at Yaviza.
  302. Great Kiskadee Pitangus sulphuratus: a few in the western lowlands.
  303. Boat-billed Flycatcher Megarynchus pitangua: one above Volcan, 2 at Cerro Santiago (RM).
  304. Rusty-margined Flycatcher Myiozetetes cayanensis: a few sightings.
  305. Social Flycatcher Myiozetetes similis: 2 in the Canal Zone.
  306. White-ringed Flycatcher Conopias albovittata: one at Rio Frio.
  307. Golden-bellied Flycatcher Myiodynastes hemichrysus: one at Fortuna NP.
  308. Sulphur-bellied Flycatcher Myiodynastes luteiventris: 2 near Rancho Frio.
  309. Streaked Flycatcher Myiodynastes maculatus: 2 on Coiba.
  310. Piratic Flycatcher Legatus leucophaius: one near Rancho Frio.
  311. Tropical Kingbird Tyrannus melancholicus: common in the western lowlands.
  312. Eastern Kingbird  Tyrannus tyrannus: 50+ Yaviza to Panama city and 100 in the Canal Zone.
  313. Fork-tailed Flycatcher Tyrannus savana: 2 on the way from Yaviza to Rancho Frio (RM) and 2 singles in the western lowlands.
  314. Sharpbill Oxyruncus cristatus:  3 on the slopes of Cerro Pirre on 14th and 2 on 17th.
  315. Rufous Piha Lipaugus unirufus: singles on Cerro Pirre ridge and near Rancho Frio.
  316. Blue Cotinga Cotinga nattererii: an immature and 2 single males in the Darien lowlands.
  317. Black-tipped Cotinga  Carpodectes hopkei: one male at Rancho Frio.
  318. Purple-throated Fruitcrow Querula purpurata: heard near Rancho Frio.
  319. Green Manakin Chloropipo holochlora: one glimpsed on the walk to Rancho Plastico on 14th. Subsequent attempts to call this species out were unsuccessful.
  320. Golden-collared Manakin Manacus vitellinus: one at Rancho Frio, heard on Pipeline Road.
  321. White-ruffed Manakin Corapipo altera: one or 2 seen most days on the slopes of Cerro Pirre, with one at Fortuna NP(RM) the only record outside Darien NP.
  322. Lance-tailed Manakin Chiroxiphia lanceolata: 10 on Coiba including displaying males, heard on Pipeline Road.
  323. Blue-crowned Manakin Pipra coronate: heard on Pipeline Road.
  324. Golden-headed Manakin Pipra erythrocephala: singles near Rancho Plastico and Rancho Frio, heard on Pipeline Road.
  325. Red-capped Manakin Pipra mentalis: singles at Cerro Azul and on Pipeline Road, 2 at Nusagandi.
  326. Cinnamon Becard Pachyramphus cinnamomeus: one at Rancho Frio.
  327. Masked Tityra Tityra semifasciata: scattered sightings.
  328. Black-crowned Tityra Tityr a inquisitor: one at Llano Larguo.
  329. Grey-breasted Martin Progne chalybea: small numbers around Panama city and the
  330. Canal Zone.
  331. Mangrove Swallow Tachycineta albilinea: several in the Canal area and Panama Bay.
  332. Blue-and-white Swallow Notiochelidon cyanoleuca: common in the west.
  333. Southern Rough-winged Swallow Stelgidopteryx ruficollis: only a few noted.
  334. Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica: several on the way back to Panama city and at Volcan lakes.
  335. Sand Martin/Bank Swallow Riparia riparia: several on the way back to Panama city.
  336. Black-chested Jay Cyanocorax affinis: several in the Darien lowlands.
  337. Sooty-headed Wren Thryothorus spadix: 2 on Cerro Pirre ridge.
  338. Black-bellied Wren Thryothorus fasciatoventris: singles at Llano Larguo and Nusagandi.
  339. Bay Wren Thryothorus nigricapillus: heard near Rancho Frio.
  340. Stripe-throated Wren Thryothorus leucopogon: heard near Rancho Plastico.
  341. Rufous-breasted Wren Thryothorus rutilus: one at the Metropolitan Park (RM).
  342.             Buff-breasted Wren Thryothorus leucotis: 2 at Llano Larguo.  
  343. Plain Wren Thryothorus modestus: singles at Cerro Azul and Volcan Buru NP.
  344. House Wren Troglodytes aedon: several sightings.
  345. Ochraceous Wren Troglodytes ochraceus festinus: one on Pirre ridge.
  346. White-breasted Wood-Wren Henicorhina leucosticta: one seen in the lower levels of Cerro Azul and heard in Darien NP.
  347. Grey-breasted Wood-Wren Henicorhina leucophrys: 2 on Cerro Pirre and heard widely in the highlands.
  348. Southern Nightingale-/Scaly-breasted Wren Microcerculus marginatus: 2 below Pirre camp.
  349. Song Wren Cyphorhinus phaeocephalus: one along Pipeline Road.
  350. Tawny-faced Gnatwren Microbates cinereiventris: 2 below Pirre camp, heard at Nusagandi.
  351. Long-billed Gnatwren Ramphocaenus melanurus: one at Nusagandi.
  352. Tropical Gnatcatcher Polioptila plumbea superciliaris: singles at Cerro Santiago and on Coiba.
  353. Slate-throated Gnatcatcher Polioptila schistaceigula: one at Rancho Frio.
  354. Black-faced Solitaire Myadestes melanops: 5+ at CerroSantiago, heard in Volcan Baru NP.
  355. Varied Solitaire Myadestes coloratus: Darien endemic, up to 5 seen well near the top of Cerro Pirre.
  356. Black-billed Nightingale-Thrush Catharus gracilirostris: a few on Volcan Baru.
  357. Ruddy-capped Nightingale-Thrush Catharus aurantiirostris: a few on the lower slopes of Cerro Santiago.
  358.             Slaty-backed Nightingale-Thrush Catharus fuscater: one at Pirre camp, heard at Cerro Santiago.
  359. Black-headed Nightingale-Thrush Catharus mexicanus: one at Fortuna NP.
  360. Swainson’s Thrush Ctharus ustulatus: only 2 singles on Cerro Pirre but locally common in the west.
  361. Mountain Thrush Turdus plebejus: several at Volcan Baru NP and Cerro Santiago.
  362. Pale-vented Thrush Turdus obsoletus: 2 at Fortuna NP and heard on Cerro Pirre.
  363. Clay-coloured Thrush/ Robin Turdus grayi: seen frequently in western and central Panama.
  364. Dagua Thrush Turdus daguae: singles at Volcan Baru and Cerro Santiago (BF).
  365. Tropical Mockingbird Mimus gilvus: a few around Panama city.
  366. Black-and-Yellow Silky-Flycatcher  Phainoptila melanoxantha: one at Cerro Santiago.
  367. Long-tailed Silky-Flycatcher Ptilogonys caudatus: 3 on Volcan Baru.
  368. Yellow-winged Vireo Vireo carmioli: one below Volcan Baru.
  369. Philadelphia Vireo Vireo philadelphicus: 2 below Cerro Santiago (RM).
  370. Brown-capped Vireo Vireo leucophrys: one in the Volcan Baru area.
  371. Red-eyed Vireo Vireo olivaceus: a few on Pirre ridge, 2 at Rio Frio and 5 at Nusagandi.
  372. Yellow-green Vireo Vireo flavoviridis: 2 at Fortuna NP.
  373. Scrub Greenlet  Hylophilus flavipes: 2 on Coiba.
  374. Tawny-crowned Greenlet  Hylophilus ochraceiceps: one or 2 on the way up Pirre.
  375. Golden-fronted Greenlet Hylophilus aurantiifrons: 2 at Summit ponds.
  376. Lesser Greenlet Hylophilus decurtatus: 3 near Rancho Plastico and 2 at Cerro Azul.
  377. Green Shrike-Vireo Vireolanius pulchellus: glimpsed at Rancho Frio, heard at Cerro Azul.
  378. Yellow-browed Shrike-Vireo Vireolanius eximius: one seen below Rancho Plastico (JH) after considerable effort, with up to 5 calling in the area.
  379. Rufous-browed Peppershrike Cyclarhis gujanensis: 2 on Coiba.
  380. Flame-throated Warbler Parula gutturalis: one on Volcan Baru.
  381.             Tropical Parula Parula pitiayumi: 2 at Volcan Lakes.
  382. Yellow Warbler Dendroica petechia: one from the boat to El Real, 2 on the journey back to Panama city, and 2 in the mangroves in Panama Bay (JH).
  383. Blackburnian Warbler Dendroica fusca: up to 5 daily in Darien NP.
  384. Bay-breasted Warbler Dendroica castanea: 2 near Rancho Plastico and on the way back to Panama city.
  385. Northern Waterthrush Seiurus noveboracensis: singles at Volcan Baru and on Pipeline Road.
  386. Chiriqui/ Masked Yellowthroat Geothlypis chiriquensis/ aequinoctialis: one at Volcan Lakes.
  387. Wilson’s Warbler Wilsonia pusilla: several in the Volcan Baru NP.
  388. Canada Warbler Wilsonia canadensis: fairly common on Cerro Pirre and 1 in the Canal Zone.
  389. Slate-throated Redstart Myioborus miniatus: a few on Cerro Pirre and in the western hills.
  390. Collared Redstart Myioborus torquatus: singles on Volcan Baru and Cerro Santiago.
  391. Rufous-capped Warbler Basileuterus rufifrons: 3 of the endemic form actuosus on Coiba.
  392. Black-cheeked Warbler Basileuterus melanogenys: 2 of the nominal race at Volcan Baru NP and 2 bensoni on Cerro Santiago.
  393. Pirre Warbler Basileuterus ignotus: only one of this very restricted-range Darien endemic at Pirre camp.
  394. Golden-crowned Warbler Basileuterus culicivorus: 2 at Fortuna NP.
  395. Buff-rumped Warbler Basileuterus fulvicauda: 2 at Rancho Frio.
  396. Wrenthrush Zeledonia coronata: one on Cerro Santiago.
  397. Plain-coloured Tanager Tangara inornata: 2 at Rancho Frio and Cerro Azul, with 1 a t El Real.
  398. Rufous-winged Tanager Tangara lavinia: one near Rancho Plastico and 2 at Cerro Azul.
  399. Emerald Tanager Tangara florida: one near Rancho Plastico and 2 at Fortuna NP.
  400. Silver-throated Tanager Tangara icterocephala:  several on Cerro Pirre and a few on Cerro Santiago.
  401. Speckled Tanager Tangara guttata: singles on Cerro Azul and at Fortuna NP.
  402. Bay-headed Tanager Tangara gyrola: Fairly common on Cerro Pirre.
  403. Golden-hooded Tanager Tangara larvata: a few in the Darien lowlands.
  404. Spangle-cheeked Tanager Tangara dowii: one in Fortuna NP and 2 on Cerro Santiago.
  405. Green-naped Tanager Tangara fucosa: 2 of this Darien endemic seen well on Cerro Pirre ridge trail.
  406. Scarlet-thighed Dacnis Dacnis venusta: one near Rancho Plastico, 2 at Fortuna NP and 3 at Cerro Santiago.
  407. Blue Dacnis Dacnis cayana ultramarine: 3 at Rancho Frio.
  408. Viridian Dacnis Dacnis viguieri: 4 of this restricted-range Darien endemic on La Antena Trail, Rancho Frio.      
  409. Green Honeycreeper Chlorophanes spiza: Small numbers seen throughout the trip.
  410. Shining Honeycreeper Cyanerpes lucidus: 2 at Cerro Azul.
  411. Purple Honeycreeper Cyanerpes caeruleus: fairly common on the lower slopes of Pirre.
  412. Red-legged Honeycreeper Cyanerpes cyaneus: 2 at Cerro Azul and Cerro Santiago, 1 at Volcan Baru NP.
  413. Blue-grey Tanager Thraupis episcopus: a few in central and western Panama.
  414. Palm Tanager Thraupis palmarum: a few around Panama city area.
  415. Blue-and-gold Tanager Bangsia arcaei: one at Fortuna NP.
  416. Grey-headed Tanager Eucometis penicillata: one on Pipeline Road.
  417. Sulphur-rumped Tanager Heterospingus rubrifrons: 4 at Nusagandi.
  418. Scarlet-browed Tanager Heterospingus xanthopygius: a few at Rancho Frio.
  419. White-shouldered Tanager Tachyphonus luctuosus panamensis: one or 2 from Rancho Frio to El Real and on Pipeline road.
  420. Tawny-crested Tanager Tachyphonus delatrii: 10 at Nusagandi.
  421. Crimson-backed Tanager Ramphocelus dimidiatus: 10 in the Canal Zone and on Coiba (arestus endemic form), a few elsewhere.
  422. Flame-rumped Tanager Ramphocelus flammigerus: 2 at Rancho Frio.
  423. Blue-and-gold Tanager Bangsia arcaei: one at Fortuna NP.
  424. Yellow-backed Tanager Hemithraupis flavicollis: 4 at Rancho Frio..
  425. Black-and-yellow Tanager Chrysothlypis chrysomelas: 2 on Cerro Pirre and Cerro Azul.
  426. Slaty Flowerpiercer Diglossa plumbea: a few in the highlands of western Panama.
  427. White-eared Conebill  Conirostrum leucogenys : 2 on the walk down to Rancho Frio.
  428. Common Bush-Tanager Chlorospingus ophthalmicus novicius: 2 on Cerro Santiago.
  429. Pirre Bush-Tanager Chlorospingus inornatus:  Darien endemic numerous on the higher
  430. slopes of Cerro Pirre.
  431. Tacarcuna Bush-Tanager  Chlorospingus tacarcunae: 2 on Cerro Santiago.
  432. Sooty-capped Bush-Tanager Chlorospingus pileatus: a few at Volcan Baru NP and one at Cerro Santiago.
  433. Rosy Thrush-Tanager  Rhodinocichla rosea: one at the Metropolitan Park (RM), heard in the Canal Zone.
  434. Bananaquit Coereba flaveola: regular encounters.
  435. Streaked Saltator Saltator striatipectus: one on Pipeline road.
  436. Buff-throated Saltator Saltator maximus: singles in Volcan Baru NP and on Coiba.
  437. Thick-billed Seed-Finch Oryzoborus funereus: one in the Canal Zone.
  438. Variable Seedeater Sporophila corvina hicksii : only 1 noted, in Fortuna NP.
  439. Yellow-bellied Seedeater Sporophila nigricollis: 7 in the Canal Zone.
  440. Yellow-faced Grassquit Tiaris olivacea: several in the west and 4 on Coiba.
  441. Blue-black Grassquit Volatinia jacarina: a few sightings.
  442. Yellow-thighed Finch Pselliophorus tibialis: 4 on Volcan Baru.
  443. Yellow-green Finch Pselliophorus luteoviridis: 3 of this Panama endemic on Cerro Colorado.   
  444. Large-footed Finch Pezopetes capitalis: 4 on Volcan Baru.
  445. Black-striped Sparrow Arremonops conirostris: one at Cerro Azul and 4 on Coiba.
  446. Chestnut-capped Brush-Finch Arremon brunneinuchus frontalis: 2 on Cerro Pirre.
  447. White-naped Brush-Finch Atlapetes albinucha: 2 at Fortuna NP(RM).
  448. Rufous-collared Sparrow Zonotrichia capensis: Numerous in the west around Volcan.
  449. Highland Hepatic-Tanager Piranga lutea: one at Rancho Plastico and 5 at Cerro Azul/Jefe.
  450. Flame-coloured Tanager Piranga bidentata: one on Los Quetzal trail and 4 on Cerro Santiago.
  451. Red-throated Ant-Tanager Habia fuscicauda willisi: 5 on Pipeline Road.
  452. Carmiol’s Tanager Chlorothraupis carmioli: 2 on Cerro Azul.
  453. Lemon-spectacled Tanager Chlorothraupis olivacea: up to 5 on Pirre.
  454. Saffron Finch Sicalis flaveola: 2 around the old Panama ruins.
  455. Black-faced Grosbeak Caryothraustes poliogaster: heard at Fortuna NP.
  456. Yellow-green Grosbeak Caryothraustes canadensis: 2 singles on Cerro Pirre.
  457. Black-thighed Grosbeak Pheucticus tibialis: one on Cerro Santiago.
  458. Blue-black Grosbeak Cyanocompsa cyanoides: 2 at Nusagandi.
  459. Eastern Meadowlark Sturnella magna: 2 of this rather small and dark race subulata at Volcan and 15 at La Yas.
  460. Red-breasted Blackbird Sturnella militaris: 20 at La Yas.
  461. Great-tailed Grackle Quiscalus mexicanus: numerous in open country and Panama Bay.
  462. Bronzed Cowbird Molothrus aeneus: one at Volcan.
  463. Giant Cowbird Scaphidura oryzivora: only a few noted at Cerro Azul and in the Canal Zone.
  464. Yellow-billed Cacique Amblycercus holosericeus: only one, on Volcan Baru.
  465. Scarlet-rumped Cacique Cacicus microrhynchus: 5 on Cerro Pirre, 2 at Rancho Plastico and 10 in the Canal Zone.
  466. Yellow-rumped Cacique Cacicus cela vitellinus : 1+ in the Canal Zone.
  467. Crested Oropendola Psarocolius decumanus: a few at Rancho Frio.
  468. Chestnut-headed Oropendola Psarocolius wagleri: one at Rancho Frio and a few at Cerro Azul.
  469. Black Oropendola Psarocolius guatimozinus:  2 displaying males together with a female at Llano Larguo, 1 near Yaviza and 2 at Rancho Frio.
  470. Lesser Goldfinch Carduelis psaltria: one at Cerro Azul and a flock of 10+ at Volcan Lakes.
  471. Yellow-collared Chlorophonia Chlorophonia flavirostris: up to 3 on Pirre ridge.
  472. Golden-browed Chlorophonia Chlorophonia callophrys: one on Volcan Baru and 2 at Cerro Santiago.
  473. Yellow-crowned Euphonia Euphonia luteicapilla: 2 on Pipeline Road.
  474. Thick-billed Euphonia Euphonia laniirostris: fairly common in central Panama.
  475. Elegant Euphonia Euphonia elegantissima: 2 at La Yas.
  476. Fulvous-vented Euphonia Euphonia fulvicrissa: singles near Rancho Plastico and Rancho Frio.
  477. Spot-crowned Euphonia Euphonia imitans: one on Volcan Baru.
  478. Tawny-capped Euphonia Euphonia anneae: 2 at Nusagandi and 4 at Fortuna NP.
  479. Orange-bellied Euphonia Euphonia xanthogaster: fairly common on Cerro Pirre.
  480. House Sparrow Passer domesticus: 3 at El Real.



Brown-throated Three-toed Sloth Bradypus variegatus: singles on 3 occasions including one at Fortuna NP.

Geoffroy’s Tamarin  Saguinus geoffroyi: 3+ near Rancho Plastico.

White-faced Capuchin Cebus capucinus: a few near Rancho Plastico and on Pipeline Road.

Mantled Howler  Alouatta palliata: Regularly heard, including coibensis on Coiba Island, but only 4 seen on Cerro Azul.

Variegated Squirrel Sciurus variegatoides: several in the Canal Zone.

Red-tailed Squirrel (Tropical Red Squirrel) Sciurus granatensis: a few throughout.

Central American Agouti Dasyprocta punctata:  a few sightings.

Pantropical Spotted Dolphin Stenella attenuate graffmani: approximately 20 were seen during our boat journey to Coiba.



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