COLOMBIA Feb 16 – March 13, 2010    

Participants: Jon Hornbuckle, Rich Hopf, Graeme Wallace and Norman Williams


I had joined an Ornifolks trip to Colombia in 1997 and spent nearly 4 weeks seeing 724 species (including 5 non-Clements splits), this at a time when a third of the country was controlled by guerrillas. Since then the security situation has improved massively. Furthermore ProAves,, has been formed and been undertaking excellent conservation work throughout Colombia, including the establishment of a suite of fine reserves for Endangered birds. So it was time to re-visit and I recruited 3 friends to join me.

The trip was a great success as we all had a good number of ticks – 42 for me with highlights Highland Tinamou, Blue-knobbed Curassow, Yellow-eared Parrot, Santa Marta Screech-Owl, Dusky Starfrontlet, White-mantled Barbet, Greyish Piculet, Beautiful Woodpecker, Recurve-billed Bushbird, Fenwick’s, Bicoloured and Brown-banded Antpittas, Chestnut-capped Piha, Black-and-gold and Gold-ringed Tanagers, and Red-bellied Grackle. Good birds I had seen before included Cauca and Wattled Guans, Bogota Rail, Pavonine Cuckoo (displaying!), Bearded Helmetcrest, Santa Marta Antpitta and Bush-Tyrant, Black Solitaire, Golden-winged Sparrow and Masked Saltator.

We only heard Tolima Dove, didn’t get to the coastal site for Chestnut Piculet, and of the birds I thought we should see, I could not find Gorgeted Wood-Quail, Yellow-browed Shrike-Vireo, Crested Ant-Tanager and Mountain Grackle. Our trip list was relatively low for 4 weeks as we were looking for quality rather than quantity and did not go to the coast or to any sites specifically to boost numbers as many tour groups do.

We opted to go with Ecoturs, the commercial arm of Pro Aves, and agreed an itinerary with Robert Giles, their man in the UK, mostly visiting Pro Aves reserves. We decided to do without a full-time guide and just use local guides except in the Santa Martas where we did request a guide. This was largely because friends had done a similar itinerary the previous year and reported that the local guides were excellent throughout.

Robert Giles did a great job in organising the trip and responded magnificently to several issues while we were in Colombia. In the main the arrangements worked well and the itinerary was satisfactory in the time available. We did make a few minor changes during the tour, with Ecoturs help, but the one major change we requested during the trip was refused: to go to El Cairo instead of Las Tangaras, a better staked-out but non-ProAves reserve. There were a few serious issues:-

1. The main driver, who did not understand any English, had never been to any of the sites and had no written instructions or maps on how to get to them, relying on his mobile phone to find out where to go, which sometimes led to delays and frustrations.

2. We were told by a junior member of the Ecoturs Bogota office that we could not go to the Piha Reserve until 11 am on March 2, the day after we were scheduled to go, because the road was blocked by a landslide. This was a cover-up because of their double-booking at the lodge – there was no landslide, as we discovered from the police at Amari, the town where we had to spent the night. Fortunately, this did not lose us much birding time as we ignored their instruction on March 2 and drove early to the Piha reserve. I understand that this staff member has been replaced, partly as a result of this event.

3. We had make do with inexperienced guides at the Yellow-eared Parrot Reserve and at La Suiza, and no guide at all on the last morning below Santa Marta. We were to have had Ecoturs’ reputedly excellent guide Trevor Ellery in the Santa Marta area but he was unavailable – however his replacement Ben Freeman was first class.
There are a surprising number of first class Colombian birders running birding tours throughout the country now, well worthy of consideration, although going with Ecoturs does contribute financially to the very valuable conservation work of ProAves.

My conclusion is that I would go with Ecoturs again if I could afford to take a good guide for most or all of the time. If I couldn’t, I would press Ecoturs to make every effort to ensure the best local guides were available, changing the order of the itinerary if necessary, or hire one of the Colombian guides, such as Diego Calderon, Pablo Florez or Luis Eduardo Urueña to run the trip.

Our itinerary was good for us but changes to consider are:-

Monterredondo instead of, or as well as, Chingaza – basically the same birds plus chance of Cundinamarca Antpitta and Greater Scythebill.

Add an extra day at Cerulea Warbler Reserve

Perhaps go to El Cairo instead of Las Tangaras and add a day. Specialities like the Bangsia tanagers seem to be more numerous here, although the latter site may become as good as it gets better known.

Visit the new Giles-Fuertesi Reserve (3300m) for Indigo-winged (Fuertes’) Parrot and other highland species.


There were rain showers on several days but only prolonged on two, costing us significant birding time at Cerulea and La Victoria. Low cloud and mist were a problem above Jardin and Cerulea. Mostly it was sunny and warm / hot with some clouds.


Many thanks for their help to Robert Giles, Diana Balcazar, Diego Calderon, Shaun Coyle, Pablo Florez, Ben Freeman, Frank Lambert and Ian Tomlinson. 


16 Feb  JH, GW and NW arrive at Bogota on Air France via Paris. Hotel El Virrey.

17 Feb 05.30-08.00 drive to Chingaza NP (3500m), in the mountains above Bogota, with Diana Balcazar

18 Feb La Florida golf-course a.m. Drive to ProAves El Paujil Reserve (190-800m), near Puerto Pinzon. Overnight at the lodge.

19-20 Feb  Hiking up the ridge trail at El Paujil and exploring the lower trails, with help from Forest guard Jose Adan and his two sons at various times.

21 Feb Early a.m. in reserve, then drive to Cerulea Warbler Reserve (1300m) with a few stops. Overnight at the lodge.

22 Feb Joined by RH at Cerulea, a.m. hike up Mountain trail with Forest guard Carlos Julio. Pm in remnant forest patches and coffee plantations below the lodge.

23 Feb A.m. in reserve but washed out by heavy rain; drive to Ocaña to visit the Recurve-billed Bushbird Reserve. Hotel Plaza Real.

24 Feb A.m. in Bushbird Reserve, with Forest guard Jose Carmito. Long drive to El Dorado Lodge (1950m) in the Santa Marta Mountains.

25-27 Feb  Birding above and below El Dorado with Ben Freeman. Overnight at El Dorado Lodge.

28 Feb  A.m. birded down the hill to Minca. Late pm near the coast at Vale. Overnight at Sierra Sound Hotel, Minca.

1 Mar    6-8 a.m. Birding up to Poso Azul road from Minca, then drive to Vale to bird coastal scrub till 10.30. Drive to Santa Marta airport for 12.30-14.00 Avianca flight to Medellin. Drive to Amari for night in local hotel.

2 Mar  04.45-0700 drive to Chestnut-capped Piha Reserve (1100-1900m) near El Arrierito. Birding along ridge with Forest guard Jose Aicondo.

3 Mar    All day at Piha Reserve. 

4 Mar    5-11 a.m. at Reserve. Drive to Ciudad Bolivar via Medellin, arriving 18.00, Hotel Los Samanes.

5 Mar    4-6 a.m. drive to Las Tangaras (Bangsia) Reserve, El Carmen (1500m), last 45 mins in jeep. Birding with Forest guard Hubernay till noon in the mid-elevation choco forest at the lookout and back along the 1.5km track. Drive to Urrao via Medellin, arriving 18.00.

6 Mar    04.30-05.30 drive to Chuscal. Hike up to Colibri del Sol reserve lodge with Forest guard Luis Rubelio, then watch antpitta feeding. Continue up on horse to paramo, arriving 09.30. Walk down to lodge, arriving 4 pm.

7 Mar    Birding near lodge till 09.30, 90 min walk down to Chuscal, drive to Jardin, arriving at 4. Hotel Valdivia Plaza.

8 Mar    Jeep up to Yellow-eared Parrot (Loro Orejiamrillo) Reserve (2500-2900m) at 04.30 with local guide, NOT the knowledgeable Jose Castaño. Back to Jardin in low cloud, drive at noon to La Suiza Lodge, Otun Quimbaya Reserve (1800m), P.N. Ucumari, arriving at 18.30. Overnight in the government-owned lodge.

9 Mar    06.00-12.30 La Suiza (1800m) with Jimmy, NOT main guide Harvy. Drive to Manizales, wait an hour for guide and permission to go to Rio Blanco Reserve (2200m). Arrive 16.30, watch antpittas feed. Overnight at the lodge.

10 Mar  All day in reserve with guide Sandra, mainly on the ridge track above the lodge; owling at night with Pablo Florez.

11 Mar Early drive to Los Navados NP (3400m) with Pablo and 2 clients. Birding roadside trees and scrub, then paramo at Las Briezas entrance gate. Walk side road for Rufous-fronted Parakeet then main road again. Drive to Hotel San Felipe near Mariquita 15.00-17.15.

12 Mar Drive to Libano (1600m) with Diana Balcazar, then to La Tigrera after picking up Golden-winged Warbler researcher Andrea Borros. Continue to Monte Tauro for Tolima Dove. Pm along river near Hotel San Felipe, Mariquita.

13 Mar Drive to La Victoria (1100m) with Diana, heavy rain 6-8 am then bird Bellavista Reserve till 10. Drive to Bogotá airport, arriving early at 14.30 for 18.30 flight home.


17 Feb              We drove to the edge of Chingaza NP in the mountains above Bogota, with Diana Balcazar, but were unable to go into the park as it was closed due to high fire-risk. We visited a patch of forest favoured by Flame-winged Parakeets and eventually saw 8, while a little higher, the paramo held Matorral Tapaculo and Amethyst-throated (Longuemare's) Sunangel but no Bronze-tailed Thornbills, which are found on the other side of the park, too far away if unable to drive through it. Black-and-chestnut Eagle, Blue-throated Starfrontlet, Coppery-bellied and Glowing Pufflegs and Blue-backed Conebill were other notable birds.

18 Feb              With an early start, Diana took us to La Florida golf-course on the edge of La Florida marsh. We walked along a small part of the wetland reserve and found all the specialities except Noble Snipe, notably Bogota Rail, Spot-flanked Gallinule, Silvery-throated Spinetail, Subtropical Doradito, Apolinar’s Wren and Rufous-browed Conebill. We left at 10, dropped Diana off and drove to Honda, where we stopped for the driver to eat. We continued at 4 and reached the Pro Aves El Paujil Reserve in the dark at 7.30. Supper and beds in the pleasant lodge there.

19 Feb              We hiked up the ridge trail with Forest guard Jose Adan and heard Blue-knobbed Curassow, the star bird of the site, near to the trail. After an agonising few minutes of peering all over for the bird, one flew out of the canopy close to us, quickly followed by another. Not the view we were hoping for but as good as you get of a giant Critically Endangered bird in flight. Rich Hopf, who was to join us at the next site, had already been here and seen a Curassow on the ground further up the trail, after some effort, so we continued up but to no avail, and didn’t see much else of note. I did have a good view of a Wood-Quail, which increased my blood pressure as there were 3 Wood-Quail ticks to be found on our itinerary, but disappointingly this was only the widespread Marbled W-Q. After lunch we explored other parts of the reserve and saw a pair of White-mantled Barbet, another key bird, at flowering trees along with a variety of parrots, from Spectacled Parrotlet tp Blue-and-yellow Macaw. In a nearly dry riverbed I eventually got good views of Sooty Ant-Tanager and a shy Black Antshrike, but there was no sign of the Agami Heron that RH had seen a few days earlier. Colombian (Speckled) Chachalacas were active near the lodge. We drove back into the open farmland to look for Northern Screamer but failed to find it.       

20 Feb              Another Curassow was heard as we hiked up the ridge trail again, with Jose’s son as guide, but it was too distant to locate. A perched Collared Forest-Falcon was some consolation. In early afternoon GW watched the feeders where Stripe-throated and Long-billed Hermits, Blue-chested and Shining Green Hummingbirds were active. He saw a Beautiful Woodpecker in trees across the river as I was watching a Rufescent Tiger-Heron fishing from a thick wire over the river. By the time I responded to Graeme’s call, it had gone, never to be seen again. I walked along the river trail with NW. We saw Olivaceous Piculet and a Bristle-Tyrant - we were unsure of the identity of the latter but subsequent investigation and records from there have convinced me that it must have been thf rare n Antioquia B-T. A pair of Gartered Trogons eating katydids was a nice sight, as was an obliging American Pygmy Kingfisher behind the lodge. Returning to the start of the ridge trail to look again for the woodpecker gave me a view of a perched female White-bibbed Manakin, but no ‘pecker. We could not find the calling Vermiculated Screech-Owl but did have a good view of a Tropical Screech-Owl.                

21 Feb             I heard the calls of a Beautiful Woodpecker early in the morning in the canopy but only saw a Black-mandibled Toucan. We soon left the reserve, with a new and better driver, for our next destination, the Cerulea Warbler Reserve. This took nearly 8 hours to reach, with a few stops, the first of which was for good views of Northern Screamers and a few wetland birds. The new lodge was excellent, with good food, but we were too late for any birding. Here Rich Hopf joined us, having just seen a Recurve-billed Bushbird after considerable patience and effort, as well as Gorgeted Wood-Quail.

22 Feb              In the morning we hiked up the quiet Mountain Trail from 1300 to nearly 2000m with Forest guard Carlos Julio. Gorgeted Wood-Quails were not feeding on the grain put out for them, and when we finally reached the highest point to look for Mountain Grackles in the temperate forest, it was rather misty and there was neither sight nor sound of them. On the way we did lure out Parker’s Antbird and Upper Magdalena Tapaculo, and saw Green Hermit and Black Inca at the feeders. Andean Toucanet, Red-browed Tyrannulet, Golden-winged Manakin and Yellow-breasted Brush-Finch of the yariguierum form were also seen. In the afternoon we visited coffee plantations below the lodge, where there were a few remnant patches of forest. The highlight was an endangered Chestnut-bellied Hummingbird that perched in a flowering tree for a long time. We also saw Indigo-capped Hummingbird but only RH had Turquoise Dacnis.

23 Feb              We made an early start to the reserve to look for the Wood-Quail but had to retreat because of a heavy downpour and thunder-storm, making the trail vary slippery and awash with water. We walked down to the sports ground below the lodge in the rain and then had to wait a long time for our vehicle’s punctured tyre to be repaired. This should have been a good site for Yellow-browed Shrike-Vireo but there was no response to play-back. There were a few birds including Lesser Eleania and Prothonotary Warbler. We then travelled for 6 hours to the pleasant colonial town of Ocaña, with a few stops, booked in at the hotel, and then drove to the Bushbird reserve for an hour’s birding. Needless to say, at this time it was very quiet, the only bird seen being Moustached Brush-Finch.

24 Feb              An early start in Bushbird reserve, with Jose Carmito who knew where the Bushbird territories were but little else. We soon heard one singing near the track but followed Jose’s advice and went higher up for a better chance of seeing the bird. Eventually we saw one pop out of thick bamboo into an open area for a second or two then promptly disappear. Two others sang, one only 2 - 3 metres away but was only seen when it flew. We tried for better views for a long time then heard one higher up the hillside. As we reached that spot, it started banging on a bamboo trunk and we saw it attacking the trunk, mainly where there were clumps of shoots – great views for several minutes. After this success, we walked a few paths looking for Black-fronted Wood-Quail but only heard it distantly. Other birds were rather scarce, probably because it was rather hot by then, with only Long-tailed Antbird of note. The car picked us up at 11, we returned to Ocaña to check out of the hotel, and then drove non-stop for six hours to Santa Marta town and on to Minca. After a further 90 mins on a rough road up the mountain, we reached the ProAves El Dorado Lodge (1950m), at 8.15, an excellent place to stay, and met Ben Freeman, our guide for the next 3 days, and his girlfriend Alexa.

25 Feb              We drove up the mountain on a fine morning as far as the stunted moss forest on the San Lorenzo Ridge (2700m) to search for the higher altitude Santa Marta specialities. We were very successful, seeing Santa Marta Parakeet, Toucanet, Bush-Tyrant, Warbler, Mountain-Tanager and Brush-Finch, Rusty-headed and Streak-capped Spinetails, Brown-rumped Tapaculo and Yellow-crowned Whitestart.  As I had birded on the mountain in 1997, only the Parakeet was new for me. The only birds missed were Black-backed Thornbill and Rufous Antpitta whose very distinctive call we could hear from the thick undergrowth. Heavy rain struck and the Toyota 4x4 started to smoke so we limped down to the lodge, arriving at 12.30. The rain eased but continued for the rest of the day. We watched a good selection of hummingbirds at the feeders, including White-tailed Starfrontlet and Sooty-capped Hermit, for some time before walking down the road. White-tipped Quetzal was nesting and Golden-breasted Fruiteater and Blue-naped Chlorophonia were seen. Back at the lodge grounds, Santa Marta Antpitta failed to appear at the feeding station, Black-fronted Wood-Quails were not at the compost heap – a good site for them - and the owls were silent, as often the case when its wet.

26 Feb              Spent most of the day below El Dorado, in rather damp and misty conditions at times. Birding was generally good, with Santa Marta Woodstar, two pairs of Santa Marta Foliage-gleaner, a noisy Grey-throated Leaftosser, Rusty-breasted Antpitta and lots of hummers in the flowering coffee at a finca I was invited to visit by its owner Senor Luis. In late afternoon at the lodge we finally saw two Black-fronted Wood-Quails, along with Band-tailed Guan, the Santa Marta form of Stripe-headed Brush-finch and at 6.10 a Santa Marta Antpitta came to the feeding station. Owling along the road before dinner was disappointing, with a bird heard but not seen, but after dinner we had good views of a rufous Santa Marta Screech-Owl, an as yet undescribed species, along the trail in the lodge grounds.

27 Feb              Today was dry apart from a short afternoon shower. We returned early to the San Lorenzo Ridge in a vain attempt to find Stygian Owl and the missing Thornbill and Rufous Antpitta. It was much quieter than before so we returned to the lodge at 10 for coffee and to collect a packed lunch. We drove down to the finca, stopping for White-rumped Hawk and Yellow-billed Toucanet, and soon had better views of 3 or 4 Santa Marta Woodstars amongst the commoner hummers. During a long vigil here, a brief view of a Blossomcrown was had and a few other birds seen such as Red-billed Parrot. A bit lower down the mountain we found a Coppery Emerald feeding on roadside flowers, but that was the last bird of note, the rest of the afternoon being disappointing – even the Antpitta failed to show for his worm-fest.

28 Feb              We birded further down the hill, all the way to Minca, and had great views of a nesting pair of Red-billed Parrots, and saw an elusive Rosy Thrush-Tanager. Further down we walked the track to Poso Azul, hoping to find the rare Santa Marta Sabrewing – no luck but we did see Golden-winged Sparrow and a definite Worm-eating Warbler, a rare bird in South America. After lunch in Minca, we were scheduled to go down to the dry xeric scrub and wetlands of the La Guajira Desert but the others thought it too far and elected to go to Ben’s closer site near the coast for Chestnut-winged Chachalaca (which I had seen in ‘97). We drove for 20 mins southwest along the coastal highway towards Cienaga, past a military camp and the Vale coal handling site, to a minor road towards the coast passing through pasture and a patch of xeric scrub. Stopping here we had good views of the Chachalaca, along with Lesser Yellow-headed Vulture, Hook-billed Kite and Russet-throated Puffbird, then returned to Minca for the night. I dined on toasted sandwiches and beer at a small café, listening to 70s music including Janis Joplin, favoured by the owner.

1 Mar                From 6 till 8 we walked up to the Poso Azul road and along it for a little way, then back to the hotel. No luck with the Sabrewing, the only new birds being Whooping Motmot, a split from Blue-crowned, and several Grey Hawks. Rich had stayed behind and found birding to be good near Minca cemetery. We all drove back to Vale and stopped at the white house on the left 1km down the minor road. I walked along the river behind the house, then along a track towards the main highway, passing through a banana plantation into coastal scrub. This was very birdy, with a close Collared Forest-Falcon, Chachalacas, Buffy Hummingbird, Caribbean Hornero (a proposed split off Pale-legged), White-whiskered Spinetail, Black-crested Antshrike, Venezuelan Flycatcher and Southern Beardless Tyrannulet. I reluctantly had to leave the area at 10.30, without finding Chestnut Piculet which I felt could well have been there. We drove to Santa Marta airport for the 12.30 flight to Medellin. Arriving at 2 pm, we were met by the disquieting news that we could not go to the Piha Reserve that night as scheduled because the road was blocked by an avalanche and would not be open till 11am the next day. The Ecoturs rep wanted us to overnight in Medellin but we insisted on going to Amari, the nearest town to the reserve. We arrived at 6 pm and took some time to find an acceptable hotel, after which we visited the police station to enquire about the avalanche with our driver as interpreter. A long discussion ensued, the police saying there had been a battle en route to the reserve two weeks ago between the army and renegades, with men killed, and it was still dangerous. However, we eventually discovered the driver had enquired about the wrong reserve – he was a good driver but had never been to any of the sites! When he mentioned ProAves, the police said it was safe to go to their reserve and the road was not blocked! After chicken and chips, I went to the internet only to find it was shut, earlier than I had been told, but the evening was saved by a local who generously invited me to his house to use his computer for email. 

2 Mar                We left at 04.45, back on the road we had come along for 30 mins, then drove to the Piha Reserve at El Arrierito, arriving at 0700 after passing a large group birding along the road near the lodge. It was clear that the lodge had been fully booked, the reason for the fake “avalanche”. We left our bags outside and proceeded up the hill with Forest guard Jose Aicondo, soon hearing Chestnut Wood-Quails calling invisibly. We birded along the length of the ridge, seeing little until a Chestnut-capped Piha popped out only a few meters away before moving to a non-photo position. Then I walked slowly back, seeing a Pale-edged Flycatcher nest-building; the others continued on the circuit to the lodge, seeing little of note. I watched the many hummers at the feeders while the others returned to the forest. RH saw Highland Tinamou and Chestnut Wood-Quail while GW and NW saw Red-bellied Grackle and Ochre-breasted Antpitta, so I was not a happy bunny.

3 Mar                After a heavy thunderstorm in the night, it was mainly sunny with clouds all day. We spent the morning in the forest – I saw the Highland Tinamou with Jose, then a female Red-bellied Grackle nest-building. RH found a displaying Pavonine Cuckoo, so I went to his site and soon saw it displaying on the ground near the main stream, calling frequently and shaking its wings and tail for some time. Back on the ridge I found a Black-and-gold Tanager and Golden-breasted Fruiteater but no Piha; Chestnut-crowned Gnateater and Purplish-mantled Tanager were seen by others. The only flock of the day contained Western Woodhaunter, Olive-backed Woodcreeper and Yellow-throated Bush-Tanager. After lunch at the lodge at 2pm, we went out but saw nothing new except for RH who stayed out till dark and saw a Screech-Owl, either Colombian or Cinnamon – we went back with him but it failed to respond to play-back.

4 Mar                Early morning owling drew a blank, with only Barred Forest-Falcon calling. I walked up to the start of the ridge and called in a Purplish-mantled Tanager, at last for me, and Sooty-headed Wren. Then I spent a long time watching and photographing the grackles – one sat in the nest for a while while 3 flew around, perching occasionally, before feeding nearby for some time. Back to the lodge at 10.15 for food and last shots of the hummers before leaving at 11 for Ciudad Bolivar via Medellin. We arrived at 6pm and checked in at the pleasant Hotel Los Samanes where we had a good chicken dinner.

5 Mar                We took a two hour drive at 4 am to the Bangsia Las Tangaras Reserve (1500m), just beyond El Carmen, with the last 45 mins in a jeep. Birded with Forest guard Hubernay and his trainee assistant till noon in the mid-elevation choco forest on a cloudy but dry day. We walked quickly up to at the lookout, arriving at 7, because Ben had said we needed to be there early to see Gold-ringed Tanager. On arrival, Hubernay said later was better, so we should have birded in the forest on the way up! RH spotted 3 Black Solitaires feeding in an isolated tree on the ridge but they soon flew off. I saw a Gold-ringed Tanager flying away then GW found 2 feeding in the distance, one of which flew towards us giving close views of its very distinctive head. Other birds here were Violet-tailed Sylph, Golden-headed Quetzal, Choco Tapaculo, Handsome Flycatcher and Tricoloured Brush-Finch. I came down after the others and trawled for Munchique Wood-Wren, getting one response to play-back. As the bird had a heavily streaked throat I was convinced it was Munchique so I dashed down to find the others and led them back to see it. They were not convinced, believing it to be Grey-breasted of a stripe-throated race. However, subsequent research revealed that the race here, leucophrys, has a white throat. I went ahead after this and saw a good number of birds including Fulvous-dotted Treerunner, Pacific Tuftedcheek, Olivaceous Piculet, Sharpe’s Wren, Rufous-crested, Rufous-throated and Glistening-green Tanagers, Black-chinned Mountain-Tanager, Indigo Flowerpiercer, Dusky Bush-Tanager and Blue-black Grosbeak. I heard a couple of Tapaculos calling but didn’t try very hard to see one, a mistake because I later learnt this was an undescribed species, now called Alto de Pisiones Tapaculo! The others saw similar birds plus Olivaceous Piha, Black Solitaire and Rufous-rumped Antwren, but no Choco Vireo, which occurs here. A different suite of hummers were active at feeders, as this was our only foray into the Choco, including Velvet-purple Coronet, Empress Brilliant and Western Emerald. We reached the jeep at noon, drove down to the car and then on to Medellin for an ice-cream stop. The final destination was Urrao – there was a short-cut birders normally used, with good sites for Munchique Wood-Wren and Tanager Finch, but the police had strongly advised not to use it, so we didn’t reach Urrao until 18.00 by the safe route.

6 Mar                We left at 04.30 for an hour’s drive NE to Chuscal farm, the starting point for a beautiful hike up to Colibri del Sol Reserve lodge (2800m) with Forest guard Luis Rubelio. We were offered horses to ride on up there but only GW accepted. We reached the lodge after 2 hours, seeing a few birds on the way, including White-capped Dipper. After breakfast Luis took us just inside the forest to his antpitta feeding-site. An undescibed species of antpitta duly arrived and put on a good performance; now known as Fenwick’s Antpitta, this forest is its only known site so far. Then we continued on the trail up to the paramo – as it got much steeper and stony, I took to a horse too. The beast was remarkably sure-footed and we reached the hummingbird feeders at 09.30, the biggest problem then being how to get off, which in my case involved more or less falling off the horse. Luis refilled the hummer-feeders and we continued a bit further on foot when GH briefly saw a Dusky Starfrontlet, the key bird to see here. We spent some time looking for it, to no avail, Luis going back to the lodge and NW continuing up to the paramo. We did see Lachrymose Mountain-Tanager and the endangered Chestnut-bellied Flowerpiercer. I also saw a Black-throated Flowerpiercer, from the rare isolated Colombian population, while others had Rainbow-bearded Thornbill. NW returned from the higher paramo, having seen Purple-backed Thornbill and a good flock with Chestnut-crested Cotinga and high elevation funarids, so I walked up there to 3200m. I saw a smaller flock, but neither of the best birds Norman had seen. The scenery was dramatic and a Paramillo Tapaculo popped out of a tussock, another new split, from Paramo. The others had gone down to the feeders and now there was activity with numerous visits by Tourmaline Sunangel and Collared Inca, and an occasional Dusky Starfrontlet. I stayed there a long time to photo the birds and see what turned up. Another star visitor was Sword-billed Hummingbird, the first time I had ever seen it at feeders, along with Mountain Velvetbreast and a few commoner species. Other birds up here included Slaty Brush-Finch, Grey-hooded Bush-Tanager and Golden-fronted Whitestart. It was 4 pm by the time I’d walked down to lodge; the others had just seen the antpitta at the feeder again. White-bellied Woodstar was a frequent visitor to the feeders in the garden, Black-billed Mountain-Toucan fed in a tree near the garden and RH had Slaty-backed Chat-Tyrant along the river. Nick Athanas arrived from El Carmen with 3 birders. It was decidedly cold at night.

7 Mar                After breakfast at 05.30, we returned to the antpitta feeding site at 06.30, with two already in waiting. NW also saw a Chestnut-naped Antpitta. We birding near the lodge till 09.30, best for me was a close Andean (Emerald) Toucanet, and a Dipper and Masked Flowerpiercer above the waterfall. The 90 min walk down to Chuscal in sunny conditions was pleasant but disappointing for birds. We drove to Urrao, then took the perpetually winding Medellin road to Jardin, a pleasant colonial town. We made two stops to check patches of dry forest to look for Greyish Piculet but it was very hot. We did have an excellent view of Striped Manakin. We checked in at Hotel Valdivia Plaza, by the main square, at 4pm, and then tried to find the Cock-of-the-Rock lek in a gorge on the edge of town. Unfortunately, we had been given inadequate directions of where to go and so failed to find it, having to make do with lesser birds such as Flame-rumped Tanager and Blue-necked Tanager. Supper consisted of egg, beans and chips in the lively square.

8 Mar                04.30 departure by jeep to Yellow-eared Parrot (RNA Loro Orejiamarillo) Reserve (2500-2900m) with a local guide, NOT the knowledgeable Jose Castaño. It was a long uphill drive on a road, very bad at times, to the higher deforested mountains with a scattering of wax palms, some having parrot nest boxes attached. Visibility was OK at first and we had good scope views of 3 Yellow-eared Parrots feeding together, after seeing them in flight. The cloud came down, obscuring any likelihood of closer views so we started to walk and drive back. Birds were rather thin and our main aims of seeing Munchique Wood-Wren and Mountain Avocetbill were getting nowhere until we reached an area where our driver claimed a group had seen the Wood-Wren two days earlier. There was some response by two birds to play-back but they gave poor views, and there was no sign of the Avocetbill. We went back to Jardin disappointed to have seen so few birds but there seemed little point in returning to the parrot site as the cloud was persistently low. We left Jardin at noon for Rio Blanco and made a couple of stops for the elusive Greyish Piculet, eventually finding a responsive one that gave great views. It became clear there was something wrong with the planned schedule as the driver was having frequent conversations with the office. We were eventually told that we were going to La Suiza first, for two days, leaving only one for Rio Blanco as it was fully booked for the next 2 nights. We did not like this and spent over an hour on the phone to Robert Giles in UK and Angela in Bogota while the driver drove up and down the road not knowing where he was going or how to get to either place! We eventually agreed to go this night to La Suiza and the following two nights to Rio Blanco. Harvy, the main guide at La Suiza, Otun Quimbaya Reserve, met us on the road and escorted us to La Suiza lodge. We arrived at 6.30 pm, only to discover the government-owned lodge was full of 16 year old girls! We were found the last 2 rooms and had a simple meal in the canteen.

9 Mar                We birded from 06.00-12.30 in cloudy conditions with Jimmy, because Harvy was not available. He knew the birds but no English and was unsuccessful in finding most of the specialities such as Moustached Antpitta, Multicoloured Tanager and Crested Ant-Tanager. Cauca Guan and Red-ruffed Fruit-Crow were easy, a few Golden-plumed Parakeet flew over, and we saw Andean (Highland) Motmot, with a single Chestnut Wood-Quail for me. We left after a quick lunch at 12.30, and drove to Manizales, being told on the way that we could not go to Rio Blanco till 06.00 tomorrow! We ignored this but had to stop in Manizales for some time before a guide arrived to show the driver the way to Rio Blanco reserve (2200m). We arrived at the lodge at 4.30 pm, having lost a good hour in all the messing about. There was no reason why we couldn’t stay there other than that their regular birdguide was not available. We were soon taken to the antpitta feeding station where the highly desirable Brown-banded and better-known Chestnut-crowned Antpitta performed very well. The hummer feeders at the lodge were well attended but with only a few species such as Tourmaline Sunangel, Speckled Hummingbird, Viridian Metaltail and Buff-tailed Coronet. The lodge was good, with reasonable food and hot showers.

10 Mar              We spent all day in the reserve with part-time guide Sandra, in cloudy conditions. At 06.15 we looked for Masked Saltator near the lodge; no luck but when we walked up the road to the antpitta feeding area, we had a good view of a Saltator high in vines. Both antpitta species came in and fed quickly, then we did the main ridge track above the lodge for the rest of the morning. I went ahead to where Sandra said was the best area for Hooded Antpitta, my most-wanted bird here along with Bicoloured Antpitta. No luck so I turned back to meet the others just after they had seen 2 Bicoloured Antpittas well! I only had a glimpse of one in flight. Other birds seen included Slaty Brush-Finch, Blue-winged Mountain-Tanager and Russet-crowned Warbler. We were caught in a heavy shower as we returned to the lodge. NW came later after stopping for a big flock including White-capped Tanager. After lunch I returned to the Hooded Antpitta spot without success but found a good flock with Capped Conebill, Black-eared, Black-capped and Superciliaried Hemispinguses, Grey-hooded Bush-Tanager and Plushcap, and saw a close Bicoloured Antpitta at a stream. We decided to go to the paramo tomorrow but the driver objected, saying it was not in the itinerary. However, Angela agreed, thanks to RH making the case in Spanish, so the driver had to accept it. I found the others back at the antpitta feeder, along with Colombian guide Pablo Florez with an English couple. All had left by 5.10pm but I stayed till dark – feeding activity resumed, the finale being a Brown-banded collecting possibly the last 3 worms in dim light and then hopping up a sappling and disappearing higher up, possibly roosting fairly high in the tree. A Chestnut-crowned Antpitta sang loudly from a horizontal log at dusk.  After supper, we went owling at night with Pablo Florez and his two clients. A White-throated Screech-Owl responded to play-back but we just could not see it and there was no reponse from Rufous-banded Owl, also found here.

11 Mar              We took an early drive to Los Navados NP (3400m), along with Pablo and clients – cold at first, below a snow-capped mountain. We birded the roadside trees and scrub, seeing little except a few Golden-breasted Pufflegs and one Black-thighed Puffleg. Then up to the paramo at Las Briezas park entrance gate and café/shop. Here we found a fine Bearded Helmetcrest, mainly sheltering in Fraillones plants, Many-striped Canastero, Andean Tit-Spinetail and Stout-billed Cinclodes. Back down the hill, we took a side-road to look for the rare Rufous-fronted Parakeet but saw only Shining Sunbeam and Plain-coloured Seedeater. We returned to the main road where we started but the only notable birds were Golden-crowned Tanager and Black-backed Bush-Tanager. At 3pm we departed for a two hour drive to Hotel San Felipe near the town of Mariquita. It had internet but so slow as be almost useless, so RH and I went into town, only to find that there was a power cut so no internet at all! Back at the hotel, we met up again with Diana Balcazar who was to be our guide for the next two days.

12 Mar              An early departure to Libano was foiled by our inability to find the road to La Tigrera until Diana spotted the gorgeous Andrea Borros walking in the town. She is researching into wintering Golden-winged Warblers and came aboard to show us the way to the patch of forest in the nearby foothills at some 1800-2000m. The target here was the rare Yellow-headed Brush-Finch, which took some finding but eventually gave very good views. Not much else was seen here – we heard White-crowned Tapaculo calling close by but could not see it. We tried a nearby area along the river for Crested Ant-Tanager but despite considerable effort, this remained one of the main dips of the trip. Continuing to Monte Tauro to look for Tolima Dove, we found a good hill-side viewpoint with 2 or 3 Doves calling below us but they never seemed to move and getting into the woodland would have been very challenging. We returned to Hotel San Felipe for lunch, having seen only one of the three Ibagué endemics on offer, then spent a pleasant afternoon birding along the shallow river a few km away. We had fair selection of birds, including a good passage of migrant Swainson’s and Broad-winged Hawks heading to North America, but the main target, Apical Flycatcher, was not confirmed despite one strong candidate.


13 Mar              We drove to La Victoria (1100m) with Diana but heavy rain, from 6-8 am, stopped play. When it eased we had two hours to bird the Bellavista Reserve, not long enough. At first it was very quiet, probably because the birds were wet, but then we found one of the main targets – a pair of Velvet-fronted Euphonia. This was followed by a Beautiful Woodpecker for GW and me, but no definite Antioquia Bristle-Tyrant.  Reluctantly we had to leave at 10 to drive to Bogotá airport for our homeward flight as it was thought this could take 6 hours. We made good time however, arriving early at 14.30 for the 18.30 flight home. We had driven past the renowned site of Laguna Pedro Palo, which was rather galling (although may have required a permit). Nevertheless, it was a fond farewell to Colombia with an excellent haul of new birds, some of which are extremely rare.




We visited the following main sites:-


Chingaza NP (3500m) is one of several good sites in the Andes around Bogota. It holds 3 specialities: Flame-winged/Brown-breasted Parakeet, Bronze-tailed Thornbill and Mattoral Tapaculo. Tawny-breasted Tinamou must occur but is rarely seen and there are a good selection of montane species such as Black-and-chestnut Eagle, Blue-throated Starfrontlet, Coppery-bellied Puffleg and White-chinned Thistletail.


La Florida swamp is close to Bogota airport and is good for Spot‑flanked Gallinule, Bogota Rail, Noble Snipe, Silvery-throated Spinetail, Subtropical Doradito, Apolinar’s Wren and Rufous-browed Conebill.

El Paujil Reserve was was created to protect the critically endangered Blue-billed Curassow, and is situated on a a low ridge lying slightly to the west of the eastern cordillera at the base of the Serranía de las Quinchas in the Magdalena Valley. Several other threatened and near-threatened species occur in the reserve, including, Saffron-headed Parrot, White-mantled Barbet, Antioquia Bristle-Tyrant, Black-billed Flycatcher and Sooty Ant-Tanager. El Paujil has a very hot and humid climate, with an average high temperature of 35ºC and on occasions can seem birdless. Other good birds here are Semicollared Hawk, Dwarf Cuckoo, Stripe-throated Hermit, Pale-bellied Hermit, Rufous-crested Coquette, Shining-green Hummingbird, Black-breasted Puffbird, Vermiculated and Colombian Screech-Owls, Central American Pygmy Owl, Citron-throated and Black-mandibled Toucans, Beautiful Woodpecker, Slaty-winged Foliage-gleaner, Black Antshrike, Dull-mantled Antbird, Bare-crowned Antbird, Streak-chested Antpitta, Black-billed Flycatcher, Antioquia Bristle-Tyrant, (Western) Striped Manakin, White-bibbed Manakin., Sooty-headed Wren, Yellow-browed Shrike-Vireo, Sooty Ant-Tanager, and Northern Screamer occurs nearby.

Cerulea Reserve: RNA Reinita Cielo Azul (1300-1900m). This is in the San Vicente de Chucurí mountains, in the subtropical Andes, and was set up to help the wintering Cerulean Warbler population. It holds Gorgeted Wood-Quail, Black Inca, Parker’s Antbird, White-mantled Barbet, White-bellied Antpitta, Rufous-browed Tyrannulet, and Mountain Grackle immediately above the reserve. The Yariquies Brush-Finch, a newly-described subspecies of the widespread Yellow-breasted Brush-Finch has recently been found here while Chestnut-bellied Hummingbird, Niceforo Wren, Yellow-browed Shrike-Vireo and Turquoise Dacnis-Tanager can be found below the reserve.

Bushbird Reserve: RNA El Hormiguero de Torcoroma  This ProAves reserve protects the enigmatic Recurve-billed Bushbird which is relatively common here. It is located only 20 minutes from the pleasant town of Ocaña, where there are good hotels. Several trails have been built through the reserve, passing through the chusquea bamboo thickets that the bushbird favours. Other specialities here are Black-fronted Wood-Quail, Stripe-breasted Spinetail Grey-throated Warbler, Chestnutbellied Thrush, Orange-billed Nightingale-Thrush and Moustached, Chestnut-capped and Stripe-headed Brush-Finches.

Santa Marta Mountains: RNA El Dorado (1900 – 2700m). The most accessible route up the Santa Marta Mountains is an isolated ridge, the Cuchilla de San Lorenzo, with a road all the way up to radio masts at nearly 2800m elevation. Almost all of the endemics can be seen in the excellent forest along this road, with the notable exception of Santa Marta Wren. There is a fine ProAves lodge here and the cool climate makes it a pleasure to stay. The road is very poor in places, a high clearance vehicle being essential. The highest elevations along the ridge are good for Santa Marta Parakeet, Rusty-headed Spinetail, Brown-rumped Tapaculo, Santa Marta Bush-Tyrant, Santa Marta Warbler, Yellow-crowned Redstart, Santa Marta Brush-Finch and Santa Marta Mountain-Tanager, and there are endemic races of Rufous Antpitta and Páramo Seedeater. Lower down, White-tailed Starfrontlet, Santa Marta Woodstar, Santa Marta Screech-Owl, Santa Marta Toucanet, Santa Marta Foliage-gleaner, Santa Marta Antpitta, Santa Marta Tapaculo and White-lored Warbler can be seen. Black‑backed Thornbill is also here but very difficult. Apart from the endemics species, there are Black-fronted Wood-Quail, White-tipped Quetzal, Streak-capped Spinetail, and endemic supspecies of Black-capped Tyrannulet, Cinnamon Flycatcher, Blue-naped Chlorophonia, Grey-throated Leaftosser, Stripe-headed Brush-Finch, and even Great Thrush. Some of these are distinctive, but unlike the Ruddy Foliage-gleaner, seem unlikely to be split. Red-billed Parrot, Coppery Emerald, Blossomcrown, Rosy Thrush‑Tanager, Golden-winged Sparrow and the rare Santa Marta Sabrewing occur in the drier, lower elevations, especially near Minca.


Chestnut-capped Piha Reserve: RNA Arrierito Anioqueño  This reserve is named after the Chestnut-capped Piha, only described in 2001 from a very restricted area in the northern part of the central Andes, which has suffered tremendous deforestation. Other endangered species, such as Red-bellied Grackle, Black-and-gold Tanager, Parker’s Antbird and Stiles’s Tapaculo also occur, along with Highland Tinamou, Chestnut Wood-Quail, Pavonine Cuckoo, Golden-breasted Fruiteater, Chestnut-crowned Gnateater and Purplish-mantled Tanager. The best area for birding is up and along the good ridge trail.


Las Tangaras Reserve, El Carmen (1500m). This recently established ProAves reserve protects an important area of Choco forest with specialities such as Fulvous-dotted Treerunner, Choco and Alto de Pisiones Tapaculos, Ochre-breasted Antpitta, Rufous-browed Tyrannulet, Dusky and Olivaceous Pihas, Orange-breasted Fruiteater, Club-winged Manakin, Black Solitaire, Munchique Wood-Wren, Choco Vireo, Black-and-gold Tanager, Gold-ringed Tanager and Olive Finch. Hummers include Velvet-purple Coronet, Booted Racket-tail, White-tailed Hillstar, Purple-bibbed Whitetip, Fawn-breasted Brilliant, Green-crowned Brilliant, Empress Brilliant and Purple-throated Woodstar. Few birders had visited it before us and we only had one morning there. It will doubtless become better known in the future, as an alternative site to El Cairo, currently favoured by the tour companies.


Colibri del Sol Reserve (2700 - 3200m). This 580 hectare reserve near Urrao, now a quiet, peaceful town – a few years ago it was a hotbed of guerrilla activity - was established to protect two endangered species restricted to the Colombian western Andes: the Dusky Starfrontlet, only rediscovered in 2004, having previously been known only from its type specimen, and the Chestnut-bellied Flowerpiercer. A new antpitta was then discovered here, Fenwick’s Antpitta, and one has been trained to come to a feeder. Other highland species include Rainbow-bearded and Purple-backed Thornbills, Tourmaline Sunangel, Sword-billed Hummingbird, Mountain Velvetbreast, White-bellied Woodstar, Black-billed Mountain-Toucan, Paramillo Tapaculo, Chestnut-crested Cotinga, Slaty-backed Chat-Tyrant and the rare, isolated form of Black-throated Flowerpiercer.


Jardin: Yellow-eared Parrot (RNA Loro Orejiamarillo) Reserve (2500-2900m). This reserve, above Jardin, protects the endangered Yellow-eared Parrot, which breeds in nest boxes here. It also holds Chestnut-crested Cotinga, Munchique Wood-Wren, Tanager Finch, Red-bellied Grackle and other more widespread montane species.


La Suiza lodge, Otun Quimbaya Reserve, P.N. Ucumari, Pereira (1800m) This government-owned lodge is ideally situated to explore the Otun Quimbaya reserve for Chestnut Wood-Quail, Cauca Guan, Red-ruffed Fruit-Crow, Moustached Antpitta, Stiles Tapaculo, Plumbeous-crowned Tyrannulet, Rufous-breasted Flycatcher,

Crested Ant-Tanager and Multicoulored Tanager.

Rio BlancReserve (2200). Protecting an important watershed for the city of Manizales, this reserve holds some of the most difficult to see species in Colombia, notably Rusty-faced Parrot, Maroon-chested Ground-Dove, Brown-banded, Bicoloured and Hooded Antpittas and Masked Saltator. Also present are White-throated Screech-Owl, Rufous-banded Owl, Ocellated and Spillmann’s Tapaculos, Tourmaline Sunangel, Buff-tailed Coronet, Long-tailed Antbird, Dusky Piha, Rufous-crowned Tody-Tyrant, Black-capped Tyrannulet, Pale-edged and Golden-crowned Flycatchers, Citrine and Russet-crowned Warblers, Capped Conebill, White-capped and Grass-green Tanagers, Black-eared, Black-capped and Superciliary Hemispinguses, Plushcap, Grey-hooded Bush-Tanager and Stripe-headed Brush-Finch.

P.N. Los Navados (3400m) is an easily accessible protected area of paramo and montane forest. We mainly birded on the Nevado del Ruiz road. The star birds are Bearded Helmetcrest, Black-thighed Puffleg and the endangered and difficult-to-see Rufous-fronted Parakeet. Other birds here are Viridian Metaltail, Golden-breasted Puffleg, Shining Sunbeam, Rainbow-bearded and Purple-backed Thornbills, Great Sapphirewing, Bar-bellied Woodpecker, Stout-billed Cinclodes, Many-striped Canastero, White-chinned Thistletail, Tawny Antpitta, Paramo Tapaculo, Buff-breasted Mountain-Tanager, Black-backed Bush-Tanager, Golden-crowned Tanager, Pale-naped Brush-Finch, Plumbeous Sierra-Finch, and Paramo and Plain-coloured Seedeaters.

Tolima/ La Victoria  This area of forest patches around the towns of Ibague, Libano and Mariquita holds several specialities, notably Tolima Dove, Blossomcrown of a different form to Santa Marta, White‑mantled and Toucan Barbets, Moustached Puffbird, Beautiful Woodpecker, Antioquia Bristle-Tyrant, Apical Flycatcher, Yellow-headed Manakin, Velvet-fronted Euphonia, Sooty and Crested Ant-Tanagers, and Yellow-headed Brush-Finch.

Other good sites near our route that we did not have time to visit are:-

El Cairo – do in between La Suiza and Rio Blanco, similar birds to Las Tangaras.

Fulvous-dotted Treerunner, Black Solitaire, Munchique Wood-Wren, Black-and-gold Tanager, Gold-ringed Tanager, Crested Ant-Tanager, Tanager Finch

Tawny-bellied Hermit, Wedge-billed Hummingbird, White-tailed Hillstar, Empress Brilliant, Collared and Brown Incas, Velvet-purple Coronet, Violet-tailed Sylph. Pacific Tuftedcheek, Bicoloured Antvireo, Yellow-breasted Antpitta, Olivaceous Piha, Orange-breasted Fruiteater, Handsome Flycatcher, Glistening-green and Purplish-mantled Tanagers, Dusky-bellied Bush-Tanager, Black-chinned Mountain-Tanager, Tricoloured Brush-Finch, Indigo Flowerpiercer, Yellow-collared and Chestnut- breasted Chlorophonias, and Beautiful Jay.

Soata is a town at 2000m on the west slope of the Eastern Andes 5-6 h drive from Bogota. Nicetero’s Wren and Chestnut-bellied Hummingbird occur close to the town, and Rusty-faced Parrot, Mt Grackle, Bronze-tailed Thornbill and Golden-bellied Starfrontlet above the town on the road to Onzango.

Isla de Salamanca National Park and Guajira - the coastal scrub, mangroves and wetlands here hold Red-billed Emerald, Buffy Hummingbird, Northern White-fringed Antwren, Slender-billed Inezia, Northern Scrub-Flycatcher, Pale-eyed Pygmy-Tyrant, Yellow-breasted Flycatcher, One-coloured Becard, Orinoco Saltator, Glaucous Tanager, Pileated Finch, Tocuyo Sparrow, Vermilion Cardinal, Orinoco Saltator and the rare Sapphire-bellied Hummingbird and Chestnut Piculet.

Reserva Natural Ibanasca (Cañón Del Río Combeima)
Some of Colombia's rarest endemics are found in the very disturbed remnant forest on slopes just outside Ibagué (Ibaqué). Amongst the endemics that can be seen here are Tolima Dove, Blossomcrown, Olive‑headed Brush‑Finch, Apical Flycatcher and Crested Ant‑Tanager.

Laguna de Sonso is a good site on the way from Bogota to La Victoria. Birds include Ruby-Topaz Hummingbird, Greyish Piculet, Streak-headed Woodcreeper, Jet Antbird, Slate-headed Tody-Flycatcher and Apical Flycatcher.


P = photo by JH

Highland Tinamou Nothocercus bonapartei: A calling bird at Chestnut-capped Piha Reserve, where the ridge trail starts to flatten out after the initial steep climb, was first seen by RH and next morning by JH with Jose.

Northern Screamer Chauna chavaria: 6 were feeding in wet grassland beyond the village nearest El Paujil on the way to Cerulea Reserve – classed as Near-Threatened with extinction by BirdLife International.  P

Broad-winged and Swainson’s Hawks Buteo platypterus and swainsoni: Several large kettles of hawks, predominantly Broad-winged, soared northwards over the river March 12th pm, several hundred birds in total. The following morning more were seen rising up from forest patches at La Victoria when the sun came out after the rain.  P

Black-and-chestnut Eagle Spizaetus isidori: This large eagle was seen soaring high above us at Chingaza - classified as Vulnerable, the total population is thought to be less than 1000.

Collared Forest-Falcon Micrastur semitorquatus: One was perched at El Paujil then JH saw an imm. very close in the scrubby trees near Vale – best ever view of this species.  P

Chestnut-winged Chachalaca Ortalis garrula: 15 were seen late afternoon from the minor road near Vale and a few in the scub there the following morning.  P

Colombian Chachalaca Ortalis columbiana: A few were seen near the lodge at El Paujil and heard at La Victoria. The taxonomy of the Speckled Chachalaca

complex, of which Colombian Chachalaca is part, is somewhat complex and this proposed split has not been accepted by Clements.  P

Band-tailed Guan Penelope argyrotis: We had a few sightings in the Santa Marta mountains.  P

Cauca Guan Penelope perspicax: we had great views of a few of this Endangered endemic at La Suiza.  P

Wattled Guan Aburria aburri: Two were seen at Piha Reserve and one heard calling at La Suiza - classified as Near Threatened.

Sickle-winged Guan Chamaepetes goudotii: A few sightings in the Santa Marta Mountains and at Las Tangaras.

Blue-knobbed Curassow Crax alberti: one of this Critically Endangered species was seen on the ground just over the ridge at El Paujil by RH and 2 were active in trees half way up the ridge trail but only seen when they flew past.

Black-fronted Wood-Quail Odontophorus atrifrons:  After hearing it at Bushbird Reserve, we finally saw two covey crossing the road late afternoon at El Dorado Lodge - classified as Vulnerable.

Chestnut Wood-Quail Odontophorus hyperythrus: RH saw it at Piha Reserve in the stream bed and JH saw 1 on the road at La Suiza – classified as Near Threatened.

Gorgeted Wood-Quail Odontophorus strophium: Only seen by RH before the rest of us arrived at Cerulea Reserve, we never even heard it  – classed as Endangered.

Bogotá Rail Rallus semiplumbeus: only 1 at La Florida but good views - listed as Endangered.

Spot-finked Gallinule Gallinula melanops: 2 of the isolated population around Bogotá (bogotensis) were at La Florida.  P

Tolima Dove Leptotila conoveri: We heard 3 or 4 calling at Monte Tauro inside inaccessible patches of forests but despite watching the area from a hillside, we failed to see any perched or flying - a very difficult species to see, classed as Endangered, known from a only small number of locations.

Yellow-eared Parrot Ognorhynchus icterotis: 3 of these superb birds feeding in the reserve above Jardin. Recently downgraded from Critically Endangered to Endangered as the population is increasing.

Santa Marta Parakeet Pyrrhura viridicata: A flock seen well both mornings we drove to the highest point possible on the San Lorenzo Ridge - classified as Endangered. P

Flame-winged/Brown-breasted Parakeet Pyrrhura calliptera: 8 at Chingaza, a tricky bird to see. Had we gone to the other side of the park, we may have seen more birds but missed this speciality. P

Red-billed Parrot Pionus sordidus: Only seen in the Santa Marta Mountains at a few locations with a pair active for a long time at a nest hole above Minca - the endemic race saturatus.  P

Pavonine Cuckoo, Dromococcyx pavoninus: a calling bird near the start of the ridge trail at Piha Reserve responded to play-back by displaying while perched on the bank of the stream. This species was unknown in Colombia until this century but has been regularly seen here, but hardly anywhere else, almost since the reserve opened.  P

Cinnamon/Colombian Screech-Owl Megascops colombianus: RH saw a Screech-owl at the Piha Reserve but unfortunately, it did not respond to play-back when we went back there with him. It should be Colombian on range but others, including Jon Fjeldsa, who have heard it think it sounds more like Cinnamon.

Santa Marta Screech-Owl Megascops gilesi: This newly described species, named after Robert Giles because of his major support for Pro Aves, eventually gave superb views at El Dorado.  P

Santa Marta Woodstar Chaetocercus astreans: Below El Dorado we all had a good look at a female with – classed as Endangered.  P

Coppery Emerald Chlorostilbon russatus: A few seen above Minca – a bird I missed last time.   P

Blossomcrown Anthocephala floriceps: One bird of the nominate race seen briefly below El Dorado; the other race berlepschi occurs around Tolima and is also difficult to find - classified as Vulnerable but probably deserves a higher threatened status.

Chestnut-bellied Hummingbird  Amazilia castaneiventris: one initially seen visiting flowering tree below Cerulea and then found perched in a big tree nearby for a long time – classed as Endangered.  P

Dusky Starfrontlet Coeligena orina: One adult mail and a few in female-type plumage at feeders just below the paramo at Colibri del Sol reserve – Critically Endangered, only known from 2 sites in the Colombian Andes.  P

Black-thighed Puffleg Eriocnemis derbyi: We saw one or two at Nevado del Ruiz - classified as Near-Threatened.

Coppery-bellied Puffleg Eriocnemis cupreoventris: One or two at Chingaza - classified as Near-Threatened.

Black Inca Coeligena prunellei: Common at the feeders in the forest at Cerulea, not seen anywhere else – classed as Vulnerable.  P

Bearded Helmetcrest Oxypogon guerinii: An excellent encounter with a male at Las Briezas park entrance to Los Navados NP – it spent most of its time perched in one large Fraillones plant, sometimes “sunbathing”.  P

White-tipped Quetzal Pharomachrus fulgidus: A pair of the Santa Marta endemic form festatus was nesting just below El Dorado Lodge.  P

Russet-throated Puffbird Hypnelus ruficollis: A few showed well on the Caribbean coast. Now that this and Two-banded Puffbird H. bicinctus are treated as separate

species, this species has a very small range in north-eastern Colombia and north-western Venezuela.  P

White-mantled Barbet Capito hypoleucus: Great views of a pair of this Nechí endemic at El Paujil including mutual display, bowing heads and bobbing tails up and down - classified as Endangered with a population is estimated at only 2,500. Heard at La Victoria but no time to look for it.  P

Yellow-billed and Santa Marta Toucanets Aulacorhynchus calorhynchus: Both species, split from Emerald Toucanet, photo’d along the San Lorenzo ridge road above El Dorado.  P

Andean Toucanet Aulacorhynchus albivitta: Seen at Cerulea and Colibri del Sol reserves, also occurs around La Suiza, Rio Blanco and Jardin but we failed to see any there -  another Emerald Toucanet split accepted by Clements.  P

Black-billed Mountain-Toucan Andigena nigrirostris: Watched feeding on berries in a tree at the Colibri del Sol lodge, also seen at Chingaza and Rio Blanco.  P

Greyish Piculet Picumnus granadensis: It took a few stops while travelling between sites on March 7 and 8 to finally locate a responsive bird, often missed on tours - classed as Endangered.  P

Beautiful Woodpecker Melanerpes pulcher: GW saw one opposite the lodge at El Paujil; I only heard it calling there, but did have a good view at the edge of the forest at La Victoria. This species is a split from Golden-naped Woodpecker M. chrysauchen and is classed as Endangered. 

Caribbean Hornero Furnarius longirostris: Seen with difficulty as rather furtive near Vale. A proposed split from Pale-legged F. leucopus, this form is only found in the xeric scrub on the Caribbean coast.

Silvery-throated Spinetail Synallaxis subpudica: Two at La Florida, Bogotá at the start of the tour.

Rusty-headed Spinetail Synallaxis fuscorufa: A few of this Santa Marta endemic were seen well above El Dorado (as were the near-endemic Streak-capped Spinetail Cranioleuca hellmayri) - classified as Vulnerable.  P

Fulvous-dotted Treerunner (Star-chested T) Margarornis stellaris: One or 2 of this localised Choco species were seen at Las Tangaras – classed as Near Threatened.

Santa Marta Foliage-gleaner Automolus rufipectus: A few were seen around El Dorado. Formerly lumped in Ruddy Foliage-gleaner, this vocally distinct bird has recently been described as an endemic species - classed as Endangered. 

Grey-throated Leaftosser Sclerurus albigularis: A pair of these ground birds were very responsive and perched up noisily at El Dorado. Here the subspecies propinquus is endemic to the Santa Marta mountains.  P

Black Antshrike Thamnophilus nigriceps: one shy bird was lured out at the bridge near the lodge at El Paujil.

Recurve-billed Bushbird Clytoctantes alixii: Fairly common by call at Bushbird Reserve with two seen well, although one rather briefly. RH also saw one at Cerulea after several hours of effort - classed as critically Endangered.

Parker’s Antbird Cercomacra parkeri: A few at Cerulea and a pair at Piha Reserve.  P

Dull-mantled Antbird Myrmeciza laemosticta: One at El Paujil.

Santa Marta Antpitta Grallaria bangsi: One appeared on only one out of 3 visits we made to the feeder at El Dorado - listed as Vulnerable. 

Fenwick’s Antpitta Grallaria fenwickorum: Two of this newly discovered species performed well at the feeder at Colibri de Sol Reserve – not listed by BirdLife but must be Endangered, probably Critically as I think it is only known from this reserve.   P

Bicoloured Antpitta Grallaria rufocinerea: Two were seen together at Rio Blanco by all except me but I saw one later, not far away near a stream - listed as Vulnerable.

Brown-banded Antpitta Grallaria milleri: two or three coming to worms at Rio Blanco, giving amazing views of what was formerly a very difficult bird to see - classified as Endangered with a population estimated at 250 – 999 individuals and decreasing.  P

Rusty-breasted Antpitta Grallaricula ferrugineipectus: One seen well at El Dorado.

Slate-crowned Antpitta Grallaricula nana: Only heard at Rio Blanco – this species has recently been split into 3 full species now so I ought to have made more effort to have seen this bird as the only one I’d had before was near the Caribbean coast in Eastern Venezuela, a different species.

Alto de Pisiones Tapaculo Scytalopus sp. Nov.: one heard near the river at Las Tangaras, without realising it was a new species!

Stiles’s Tapaculo Scytalopus stilesi: One was seen at the Piha Reserve and others heard, also heard at La Suiza - classified as Endangered.

Upper Magdalena Scytalopus rodriguezi: One at Cerulea Reserve - classified as Endangered.

Mattoral Tapaculo (Rufous-rumped T) Scytalopus griseicollis: Another endemic skulker that was seen well in the paramo at Chingaza.

Spillmann’s Tapaculo Scytalopus spillmanni: This version of the ‘Brown-rumped Tapaculo’ (seen at El Dorado) was heard only at Rio Blanco and above Jardin.

Choco Tapaculo Scytalopus chocoensis: Seen at the high viewpoint at Las Tangaras - this form was formerly lumped in Nariño Tapaculo S. vicinior.

Paramillo Tapaculo Scytalopus sp.: One in the paramo at Colibri del Sol Reserve – a newly described species.

Paramo Tapaculo Scytalopus canus: One at Los Navados NP.

Olive-striped Flycatcher Mionectes olivaceus: One of the endemic subspecies galbinus was seen well in the Santa Marta Mountains.

Rufous-breasted Flycatcher Leptopogon rufipectus: Seen at La Suiza and Rio Blanco.

Antioquia Bristle-Tyrant Phylloscartes lanyoni: A Nechí endemic only described about two decades ago. Classified as Endangered.

Variegated Bristle-Tyrant Pogonotriccus poecilotis: Only seen at La Suiza.

Santa Marta Bush-Tyrant Myiotheretes pernix: One performed very well on our first day at the high point of the San Lorenzo Ridge - a difficult bird to see well and listed as Endangered.   P

Rufous-browed Tyrannulet Phylloscartes superciliaris: one in a small flock on the main trail at Cerulea Reserve.

Pale-edged Flycatcher Myiarchus cephalotes: One was collecting bill-fulls of nesting material off the ridge trail at the Piha Reserve on two days.  P                                

Chestnut-capped Piha Lipaugus weberi: One on the ridge at the Piha Reserve was seen very well but moved further away and could not be relocated - classified as Endangered.

Red-ruffed Fruitcrow Pyroderus scutatus: Five or six of the near-endemic (there are a few records from NW Ecuador) race occidentalis were seen very well along the road at La Suiza.  P

White-bibbed Manakin Corapipo leucorrhoa: A female plumaged bird was seen by JH at El Paujil in light forest over the river opposite the lodge.  P

Striped Manakin Machaeropterus regulus: A fine male of the endemic race antioquiae was watched feeding on berries at a stop in the dry forest on the way to La Suiza when we were looking for Greyish Piculet. This species was split for a while as Western Striped manakin M. striolatus but has been lumped again now.  P

Sooty-headed Wren Thryothorus spadix: One was seen well by JH at Piha Reserve near the same spot as the Highland Tinamou.

Apolinar's Wren Cistothorus apolinari: 3 seen well at La Florida – classed as Critically Endangered.  P

Munchique Wood-Wren Henicorhina negreti: sightings of birds at Las Tangaras and Yellow-eared Parrot Reserves left something to be desired – classed as Critically Endangered.  P

Black Solitaire Entomodestes coracinus: 3 at the upper viewpoint at Las Tangaras soon flew off and one gave better views lower down the trail.

Purplish-mantled Tanager Iridosornis porphyrocephala: We had a few sightings of one or more at the Piha Reserve when birding separately. I was the last to catch up with it on the last morning when one showed very well - classified as Near Threatened. We should have seen it at Las Tangaras too but didn’t stay there long.  P

Black-and-gold Tanager Bangsia melanochlamys: A few sightings of singles on the ridge at the Piha Reserve - Classified as Vulnerable.

Gold-ringed Tanager Bangsia aureocincta: Only 2 were seen for sure from the view point at Las Tangaras - classified as Endangered, it has a very small range (670 km²) and is currently known from just a few localities.

Sooty Ant-Tanager Habia gutturalis: One nice male was found in the nearly dry riverbed near the lodge at El Paujil - classified as Near Threatened.

Rosy Thrush-Tanager Rhodinocichla rosea: An elusive bird was seen with difficulty above Minca.

Dusky(-bellied) Bush-Tanager Chlorospingus semifuscus: At least one of the northern (Western Andes) race livingstoni was seen at Las Tangaras.

Worm-eating Warbler Helmitheros vermivorum: one at the start of Poso Azul on Feb 28th was checked thoroughly. According to Ridgely and Tudor (2009), only known in South America from a few recent records in north Venezuela.

Yellow-crowned Whitestart Myioborus flavivertex: A few of this Santa Marta endemic above El Dorado - classed as Endangered.  P

Stripe-headed Brush-Finch Arremon torquatus: One of the basilicus form of this species whose taxonomy is under debate was seen at El Dorado lodge.

Moustached Brush-Finch Atlapetes albofrenatus: Seen well at the Bushbird Reserve, showing little of the moustache - an as-yet undescribed form.

Yellow-(Olive-)headed Brush-Finch Atlapetes flaviceps: This rare and localized endemic was seen very well in the Libano area. Classified as Endangered, the world population is estimated at between 250 and 999 individuals.  P

Yariquies Brush-Finch Atlapetes latinuchus yariguierum: Two of the newly-described subspecies of the widespread Yellow-breasted Brush-Finch, recently been found at Cerulea, were seen on the ridge trail near the reserve’s upper boundary. Yellow-breasted is a split from Rufous-naped A. rufinucha, which is also known as Bolivian B-F, so this species complex is rather confusing. 

Golden-winged Sparrow Arremon schlegeli: We had a couple of sightings above Minca, along the main road and on Poso Azul.  P

Chestnut-bellied Flowerpiercer Diglossa gloriosissima: a pair feeding in flowering tall bushes at the edge of the paramo at Colibri del Sol reserve - classed as Endangered.

Black-throated Flowerpiercer Diglossa brunneiventris vuilleumieri: one made a brief appearance, enough for a poor photo, in the same plants as the above fed. This would not be notable in Peru but this form is very localised and isolated from the nominate form and would surely be classed as Endangered if split.  P

Rufous-browed Conebill Conirostrum rufum: Two pairs at La Florida.  P

Masked Saltator Saltator cinclus: Good views of this rarely seen species in a tangle of vines near the lodge at Rio Blanco, said to be nesting near here.

Red-bellied Grackle Hypopyrrhus pyrohypogaster: A pair was nesting near the road at Piha Reserve and feeding with 2 others; there were at least 2 others higher up on the ridge – the finest grackle by far, officially Endangered unfortunately.  P

Velvet-fronted Euphonia Euphonia concinna: A pair showed well just outside the forest at La Victoria – classed as Endangered.  P


1.     Tawny-breasted Tinamou Mts above Bogota, eg at Chingaza and Cerro la Guadalupe – difficult to see.

2.     Gorgeted Wood-Quail      Cerulea

3.     Semicollared Hawk          El Dorado - rare

4.     Rufous-fronted Parakeet  Los Navados - difficult

5.     Santa Marta Sabrewing    Poso Azul, Minca - difficult

6.     Black-backed Thornbill     El Dorado - rare

7.     Bronze-tailed Thornbill      Chingaza

8.     Mountain Avocetbill         Los Navados - difficult

9.     Colombian Screech-Owl   El Paujil, La Suiza, Piha reserve?

10.  Chestnut Piculet               La Guajira, Isla Salamanca, in or near Camarones 30 min W of Riohacha

11.  Slaty-winged Foliage-gleaner  El Paujil (& Rio Claro)

12.  Slate-crowned Antpitta split    Rio Blanco

13.  Moustached Antpitta        La Suiza and above Jardin

14.  Hooded Antpitta              Rio Blanco - difficult

15.  Niceforo Wren                  Cerulea, below the reserve

16.  Yellow-browed Shrike-Vireo  Cerulea (common at Pauxi Pauxi reserve, also good for Saffron-headed Parrot)            

17.  Crested Ant-Tanager        Libano, La Suiza (& El Cairo)

18.  Mountain Grackle            Cerulea, above the reserve (& near Soata). 



  1. Cundinamarca Antpitta  Monterredondo      
  2. Indigo-winged (Fuertes) Parrot   Giles-Fuertesi Reserve
  3. Short-tailed Emerald      West Andes sites, eg Laguna Fúquene, Rogitama private reserve c.3 hours north of Bogota
  4. Narrow-tailed Emerald   East slope E Andes, Ocana - Pamplona
  5. Colourful Puffleg                 Munchique NP                      
  6. Sapphire-bellied Hummingbird    Mangroves E of Riohacha, Guajira - rare
  7. Greater Scythebill         Monterredondo - rare
  8. Barred Ant-thrush          PN Purace - rare

9.     Crescent-faced Antpitta    Puracé NP, Bogota

  1. Brownish Twistwing          Río Claro 
  2. Dusky-headed Brush-Finch  San Agustin 

12.  Black Oropendola         Remedios, Antioquia.



KEY:  CH Chingaza, LF La Florida, EP El Paujil, C Cerulea Reserve, B Bushbird Reserve, SM Santa Marta Mts, M Minca, V Vale (north coast), P Chestnut-capped Piha Reserve, T Las Tangaras, CS Colibri del Sol , J Jardin & Y-e Parrot Reserve, OQ Otun Quimbaya Reserve (La Suiza lodge) , RB Rio Blanco, LN Los Navados NP,  LV La Victoria including Libano and Marivales areas.

NW = only seen by Norman Williams, RH only by Rich Hopf, GW only by Graeme Wallace. Species seen while traveling are allocated to the nearest site.

Photos: 1 = OK, 0 = record only.


Photos  Great Tinamou                                              Tinamus major                                     heard EP

              Little Tinamou                                                Crypturellus soui                                  EP,heard LV

              Fulvous Whistling-Duck                              Dendrocygna bicolor                           near EP

              Andean Duck                                                 Oxyura ferruginea                               LN

              Andean Guan                                                Penelope montagnii                              CH

              Crested Bobwhite                                          Colinus cristatus                                  B,V

              Marbled Wood-Quail                                    Odontophorus gujanensis                   EP

              Pied-billed Grebe                                          Podilymbus podiceps                           LF

              Brown Booby                                                Sula leucogaster                                   SM airport

1            Brown Pelican                                               Pelecanus occidentalis                        SM airport

              Neotropical Cormorant                                Phalacrocorax brasilianus                   LF

              Magnificent Frigatebird                                Fregata magnificens                            SM airport

1            Rufescent Tiger-Heron                                 Tigrisoma lineatum                               EP

              Striated Heron                                               Butorides striata                                   EP,M,P,LV

              Cattle Egret                                                    Bubulcus ibis                                        widespread

              Cocoi Heron                                                 Ardea cocoi                                          EP

              Great Egret                                                    Ardea alba                                            LF,EP

1            Snowy Egret                                                  Egretta thula                                         LF,SM airport

              Bare-faced Ibis                                              Phimosus infuscatus                            near EP

              Wood Stork                                                   Mycteria americana                             near EP

1            Turkey Vulture                                               Cathartes aura                                     widespread

              Lesser Yellow-headed Vulture                     Cathartes burrovianus                         V

              (American) Black Vulture                              Coragyps atratus                                 widespread

              Osprey                                                           Pandion haliaetus                                 SM

1            Hook-billed Kite                                            Chondrohierax uncinatus                     V

              Swallow-tailed Kite                                       Elanoides forficatus                              EP

              White-tailed Kite                                           Elanus leucurus                                   LF

              Plumbeous Kite                                             Ictinia plumbea                                     near EP&T

              Sharp-shinned Hawk                                   Accipiter striatus                                  CH

              White Hawk                                                   Leucopternis albicollis                          EP

              Savanna Hawk                                              Buteogallus meridionalis                       V,LV

0            Black-chested Buzzard-Eagle                      Geranoaetus melanoleucus                 CH,RB

1            Roadside Hawk                                            Buteo magnirostris                               widespread

              White-rumped Hawk                                     Buteo leucorrhous                                SM

1            Grey Hawk                                                     Buteo nitidus                                         M

              Short-tailed Hawk                                         Buteo brachyurus                                SM

              White-tailed Hawk                                        Buteo albicaudatus                               P,CS

1            Black Hawk-Eagle                                         Spizaetus tyrannus                              B,SM,M

              Barred Forest-Falcon                                   Micrastur ruficollis                                heard P

1            Collared Forest-Falcon                               Micrastur semitorquatus                      EP,V

              Crested Caracara                                          Caracara cheriway                              EP,M,LV

1            Yellow-headed Caracara                             Milvago chimachima                             common in transit

              American Kestrel                                           Falco sparverius                                  CH,V

              Bat Falcon                                                     Falco rufigularis                                    SM,M

0            Limpkin                                                          Aramus guarauna                                V

              Grey-necked Wood-Rail                             Aramides cajanea                                V

              Russet-crowned Crake                                Anurolimnas viridis                               C

              Blackish Rail                                                 Pardirallus nigricans                             V

              Purple Gallinule                                            Porphyrio martinica                              LF

              American Coot                                              Fulica americana                                  LF

1            Southern Lapwing                                        Vanellus chilensis                                 V,CS,OQ,LV

1            Spotted Sandpiper                                       Actitis macularius                                 V,LV

              Solitary Sandpiper                                       Tringa solitaria                                      LV

              Ruddy Turnstone                                         Arenaria interpres                                SM airport

1            Wattled Jacana                                             Jacana jacana                                      near EP,LV

1            Laughing Gull                                               Leucophaeus atricilla                           SM airport

              Common Ground-Dove                               Columbina passerina                           widespread

1            Ruddy Ground-Dove                                   Columbina  talpacoti                             EP,LV

              Scaled Dove                                                  Columbina squammata                        M

1            Band-tailed Pigeon                                      Patagioenas fasciata                            CH,C,SM,CS,J

              Pale-vented Pigeon                                      Patagioenas cayennensis                    EP

              Ruddy Pigeon                                               Patagioenas subvinacea                      P,T

              Eared Dove                                                   Zenaida auriculata                                CH,LF,LV

1            White-tipped Dove                                       Leptotila verreauxi                                EP,C,SM,M

              Grey-chested Dove                                      Leptotila cassini                                    EP

              Lined Quail-Dove                                         Geotrygon linearis                                heard SM

1            Blue-and-yellow Macaw                               Ara ararauna                                        EP

              Chestnut-fronted Macaw                              Ara severus                                         EP

1            Scarlet-fronted Parakeet                              Aratinga wagleri                                    SM,M

              Brown-throated Parakeet                             Aratinga pertinax                                  V

              Golden-plumed Parakeet                             Leptosittaca branickii                           OQ

1            Spectacled Parrotlet                                     Forpus conspicillatus                           EP

1            Orange-chinned Parakeet                           Brotogeris jugularis                              EP,C,SM,LV

1            Scaly-naped Parrot                                      Amazona mercenaria                           SM

              Squirrel Cuckoo                                            Piaya cayana                                       C,SM,M,LV

              Yellow-billed Cuckoo                                   Coccyzus americanus                         J

1            Greater Ani                                                    Crotophaga major                                EP

1            Smooth-billed Ani                                         Crotophaga ani                                     LF,EP,C,B

              Groove-billed Ani                                         Crotophaga sulcirostris                        M

              Striped Cuckoo                                             Tapera naevia                                      heard EP

1            Pavonine Cuckoo                                         Dromococcyx pavoninus                     P

1            Tropical Screech-Owl                                  Megascops choliba                              EP, heard C&P

              Colombian/Cinnamon Screech-Owl           Megascops colombianus/petersoni     P(RH)

              Vermiculated Screech-Owl                          Megascops guatemalae                       heard EP

1            Santa Marta Screech-Owl                            Megascops gilesi                                 SM

              White-throated Screech-Owl                       Megascops albogularis                        heard RB

              Mottled Owl                                                   Ciccaba virgata                                    SM,P

              Common Potoo                                            Nyctibius griseus                                 heard EP

              Nacunda Nighthawk                                     Podager nacunda                                 near EP

              Common Pauraque                                       Nyctidromus albicollis                          EP,C

              Band-winged Nightjar                                  Caprimulgus longirostris                      SM

              Chestnut-collared Swift                                Streptoprocne rutila                              CS

              White-collared Swift                                     Streptoprocne zonaris                          CH,EP,P,J

              Grey-rumped Swift                                        Chaetura cinereiventris                        P

              White-tipped Swift                                        Aeronautes montivagus                       C

1            White-necked Jacobin                                 Florisuga mellivora                               EP

              Rufous-breasted Hermit                               Glaucis hirsutus                                   EP,SM,P,RB

1            Stripe-throated Hermit                                  Phaethornis striigularis                         EP,SM,LV

              Sooty-capped Hermit                                   Phaethornis augusti                             SM

              Green Hermit                                                 Phaethornis guy                                   C

              Long-billed Hermit                                        Phaethornis longirostris                       EP

0            Brown Violetear                                            Colibri delphinae                                   SM,P

1            Green Violetear                                             Colibri thalassinus                                SM

1            Sparkling Violetear                                       Colibri coruscans                                 SM,CS

1            Amethyst-throated (Longuemare's) Sunangel  Heliangelus amethysticollis clarisse  CH

1            Tourmaline Sunangel                                   Heliangelus exortis                               CS,LN

1            Speckled Hummingbird                               Adelomyia melanogenys                      C,RB

              Long-tailed Sylph                                         Aglaiocercus kingi                                RB

1            Violet-tailed Sylph                                        Aglaiocercus coelestis                         T

              Rainbow-bearded Thornbill                        Chalcostigma herrani                           CS

              Purple-backed Thornbill                              Ramphomicron microrhynchum          CS(NW)

1            Tyrian Metaltail                                             Metallura tyrianthina                             CH,SM

              Viridian Metaltail                                           Metallura williami                                   RB

1            Glowing Puffleg                                            Eriocnemis vestita                                CH

              Golden-breasted Puffleg                              Eriocnemis mosquera                          LN

              Shining Sunbeam                                         Aglaeactis cupripennis                         LN

              Bronzy Inca                                                   Coeligena coeligena                             P

              Brown Inca                                                    Coeligena wilsoni                                  T

1            Collared Inca                                                Coeligena torquata                               CS,J,OQ,RB

1            White-tailed Starfrontlet                               Coeligena phalerata                             SM

              Blue-throated Starfrontlet                             Coeligena helianthea                            CH

1            Mountain Velvetbreast                                  Lafresnaya lafresnayi                          CS,J,RB

1            Sword-billed Hummingbird                          Ensifera ensifera                                  CS,LN

1            Buff-tailed Coronet                                       Boissonneaua flavescens                    RB

              Velvet-purple Coronet                                  Boissonneaua jardini                            T

              Booted Racket-tail                                        Ocreatus underwoodii                          P

1            Green-crowned Brilliant                              Heliodoxa jacula                                   C,P

              Empress Brilliant                                          Heliodoxa imperatrix                            T

              Long-billed Starthroat                                  Heliomaster longirostris                       M

1            White-bellied Woodstar                               Chaetocercus mulsant                         CS

              Western Emerald                                          Chlorostilbon melanorhynchus            P

              Red-billed Emerald                                       Chlorostilbon gibsoni                            M

1            Coppery Emerald                                         Chlorostilbon russatus                         SM

1            White-vented Plumeleteer                            Chalybura buffonii                                EP,SM

1            Violet-crowned Woodnymph                      Thalurania colombica                           C,SM,M,P

              Green-crowned Woodnymph                     Thalurania fannyi                                  P

              Rufous-tailed Hummingbird                         Amazilia tzacatl                                     J

1            Andean Emerald                                           Amazilia  franciae                                 C,P

1            Blue-chested Hummingbird                         Amazilia amabilis                                  EP,C

              Steely-vented Hummingbird                        Amazilia saucerrottei                            SM

1            Indigo-capped Hummingbird                      Amazilia cyanifrons                              C

1            Shining-green Hummingbird                      Lepidopyga goudoti                              EP

              Buffy Hummingbird                                       Leucippus fallax                                   V

0            Golden-headed Quetzal                              Pharomachrus auriceps                      T,RB

1            Gartered Trogon                                          Trogon caligatus                                  EP

1            Collared Trogon                                           Trogon collaris                                     EP,P

1            Masked Trogon                                            Trogon personatus                              C,SM,P,T

1            Ringed Kingfisher                                        Megaceryle  torquata                           EP,near C,LV

              Amazon Kingfisher                                       Chloroceryle amazona                         V

1            American Pygmy Kingfisher                        Chloroceryle aenea                              EP

1            Broad-billed Motmot                                     Electron platyrhynchum                       EP

1            Whooping (Blue-crowned) Motmot            Momotus subrufescens                       M,V,P

1            Andean (Highland) Motmot                         Momotus aequatorialis                         OQ

1            Rufous-tailed Jacamar                                 Galbula ruficauda                                 M,V

              Moustached Puffbird                                    Malacoptila mystacalis                         P(RH)

              Red-headed Barbet                                      Eubucco bourcierii                               P

1            Keel-billed Toucan                                       Ramphastos sulfuratus                        SM,M

1            Black-mandibled Toucan                             Ramphastos ambiguus                        CH,EP

              Chestnut-mandibled Toucan                       Ramphastos swainsonii                       EP

1            Citron-throated (Channel-billed) Toucan  Ramphastos vitrellinus citreolaemus   EP

0            Collared Araçari                                            Pteroglossus torquatus                        M

              Scaled Piculet                                               Picumnus squamulatus                        M

1            Olivaceous Piculet                                        Picumnus olivaceus                             EP

1            Red-crowned Woodpecker                         Melanerpes rubricapillus                      C,V,J,LV

              Smoky-brown Woodpecker                        Picoides fumigatus                               P

1            Golden-olive Woodpecker                         Colaptes rubiginosus                           SM

1            Crimson-mantled Woodpecker                  Colaptes rivolii                                      RB

              Spot-breasted Woodpecker                        Colaptes punctigula                              near C

              Cinnamon Woodpecker                              Celeus loricatus                                   EP,C

              Lineated Woodpecker                                 Dryocopus lineatus                              EP,SM

              Powerful Woodpecker                                 Campephilus pollens                            heard M

              Crimson-crested Woodpecker                   Campephilus melanoleucos                 EP,SM

1            Stout-billed Cinclodes                                 Cinclodes excelsior                              LN

              Azara's Spinetail                                           Synallaxis azarae                                 P,heard often

              Pale-breasted Spinetail                                Synallaxis albescens                           EP

0            Slaty Spinetail                                               Synallaxis brachyura                           C

              White-whiskered Spinetail                          Synallaxis candei                                 V

1            Streak-capped Spinetail                              Cranioleuca hellmayri                           SM

0            Andean Tit-Spinetail                                    Leptasthenura andicola                        LN

0            Many-striped Canastero                              Asthenes flammulata                            LN

              Spotted Barbtail                                            Premnoplex brunnescens                    SM,P

              Pearled Treerunner                                      Margarornis squamiger                        CH,T,CS,J

              Pacific Tuftedcheek                                      Pseudocolaptes johnsoni                     T

1            Montane Foliage-gleaner                            Anabacerthia striaticollis                      SM,T,OQ

              Lineated Foliage-gleaner                            Syndactyla subalaris                            C,OQ

              Western (Striped) Woodhaunter                Hyloctistes (subulatus) virgatus          P

              Plain Xenops                                                Xenops minutus                                   EP

0            Streaked Xenops                                          Xenops rutilans                                    RB

              Tyrannine Woodcreeper                             Dendrocincla tyrannina                        CH,T

              Olivaceous Woodcreeper                           Sittasomus griseicapillus                      EP,P

1            Straight-billed Woodcreeper                       Dendroplex picus                                 EP,V

              Strong-billed Woodcreeper                        Xiphocolaptes promeropirhynchus      SM

              Cocoa Woodcreeper                                   Xiphorhynchus susurrans                   M

              Olive-backed Woodcreeper                        Xiphorhynchus triangularis                  P

              Montane Woodcreeper                                Lepidocolaptes lacrymiger                   SM,T,CS

0            Black-crested Antshrike                               Sakesphorus canadensis                    V

              Barred Antshrike                                           Thamnophilus doliatus                         LV

0            Bar-crested Antshrike                                  Thamnophilus multistriatus                  C

0            Uniform Antshrike                                        Thamnophilus unicolor grandior           P

              Western Slaty-Antshrike                              Thamnophilus atrinucha                       EP,LV

              Black-backed Antshrike                               Thamnophilus melanonotus                 M

              Plain Antvireo                                               Dysithamnus mentalis                          P

0            Slaty Antwren                                                Myrmotherula schisticolor                    C,P

              Long-tailed Antbird                                      Drymophila caudata                             B

              Rufous-rumped Antwren                              Terenura callinota                                T

              Jet Antbird                                                     Cercomacra nigricans                         EP

              Chestnut-backed Antbird                             Myrmeciza exsul                                  EP                                    

1            Chestnut-crowned Antpitta                          Grallaria ruficapilla                                RB

              Chestnut-naped Antpitta                              Grallaria nuchalis                                 CS(NW)

              Yellow-breasted Antpitta                              Grallaria flavotincta                              T

              Rufous Antpitta                                             Grallaria rufula spatiator                       heard CH & SM

              Tawny Antpitta                                              Grallaria quitensis                                LN

              Ochre-breasted Antpitta                               Grallaricula flavirostris                         P

              Chestnut-crowned Gnateater                      Conopophaga castaneiceps                P

              Ash-coloured Tapaculo                               Myornis senilis                                     heard RB

              Blackish Tapaculo                                        Scytalopus latrans                               heard RB

              Santa Marta Tapaculo                                  Scytalopus sanctaemartae                  SM

              White-crowned Tapaculo                            Scytalopus atratus                               heard LV

              Brown-rumped Tapaculo                             Scytalopus latebricola                          SM

              Ocellated Tapaculo                                      Acropternis orthonyx                           heard T & J

              Black-capped Tyrannulet                            Phyllomyias nigrocapillus                     CH

              Ashy-headed Tyrannulet                             Phyllomyias cinereiceps                      OQ

1            Tawny-rumped Tyrannulet                          Phyllomyias uropygialis                        RB

1            Yellow-bellied Elaenia                                  Elaenia flavogaster                               SM,LV

0            Mountain Elaenia                                          Elaenia frantzii                                      CH,SM,CS,LV

              Lesser Elaenia                                              Elaenia chiriquensis                             C

1            White-banded Tyrannulet                            Mecocerculus stictopterus                  CH,CS,LN

              White-tailed Tyrannulet                               Mecocerculus poeciloerus                   RB

1            White-throated Tyrannulet                          Mecocerculus leucophrys                   CH,LF,SM,CS,LN

              Subtropical Doradito                                    Psaudocolopteryx acutipennis             LF

              Rufous-headed Pygmy-Tyrant                    Pseudotriccus ruficeps                        P

              Golden-faced Tyrannulet                            Zimmerius chrysops                            B,T,CS,LV

              Marble-faced Bristle-Tyrant                         Phylloscartes ophthalmicus                 P,T

              Southern Beardless Tyrannulet              Camptostoma obsoletum                     V

              Streak-necked Flycatcher                            Mionectes striaticollis                           P,CS

              Ochre-striped Flycatcher                            Mionectes olivaceus                            SM

              Ochre-bellied Flycatcher                             Mionectes oleaginous                          EP

           Rufous-breasted Flycatcher                  Leptopogon rufipectus                         OQ,RB

              Ornate Flycatcher                                         Myiotriccus ornatus                             C,P,T

              Scale-crested Pygmy-Tyrant                       Lophotriccus pileatus                           C,P,LV

              Rufous-crowned Tody-Flycatcher              Poecilotriccus ruficeps                         P

              Common Tody-Flycatcher                          Todirostrum cinereum                          EP,C

              Handsome Flycatcher                                  Myiophobus pulcher                             T

              Bran-coloured Flycatcher                            Myiophobus fasciatus                          C

1            Cinnamon Flycatcher                                  Pyrrhomyias cinnamomeus                 SM,T,CS

              Acadian Flycatcher                                      Empidonax virescens                          SM

              Olive-sided Flycatcher                                Contopus cooperi                                 C

1            Smoke-coloured Pewee                               Contopus fumigatus                             C,T

1            Tropical Pewee                                             Contopus cinereus                               EP,C

1            Black Phoebe                                                Sayornis nigricans                               LF,EP,SM,M

1            Vermilion Flycatcher                                    Pyrocephalus rubinus                          LF,C

0            Streak-throated Bush-Tyrant                       Myiotheretes striaticollis                       SM,LN

              White-headed Marsh-Tyrant                       Arundinicola leucocephala                   near EP

              Crowned Chat-Tyrant                                  Ochthoeca frontalis                              RB

              Slaty-backed Chat-Tyrant                            Ochthoeca cinnamomeiventris            CS(RH)

              Brown-backed Chat-Tyrant                         Ochthoeca fumicolor                            CH,LN

1            Long-tailed Tyrant                                        Colonia colonus                                    near EP

1            Cattle Tyrant                                                  Machetornis rixosa                              near EP,C,J

1            Piratic Flycatcher                                          Legatus leucophaius                            EP

              Rusty-margined Flycatcher                         Myiozetetes cayanesis                        EP

1            Social Flycatcher                                          Myiozetetes similis                               C,M

1            Great Kiskadee                                             Pitangus sulphuratus                           EP,C,SM,LV

1            Lesser Kiskadee                                           Pitangus lictor                                       LV

              Golden-crowned Flycatcher                       Myiodynastes chrysocephalus            T

              Streaked Flycatcher                                     Myiodynastes maculatus                     EP,P,J

1            Boat-billed Flycatcher                                  Megarynchus pitangua                        LV

1            Tropical Kingbird                                         Tyrannus melancholicus                      widespread

1            Fork-tailed Flycatcher                                  Tyrannus savana                                 EP

              Dusky-capped Flycatcher                           Myiarchus tuberculifer                         LV

              Venezuelan Flycatcher                                 Myiarchus venezuelensis                    V

              Bright-rumped Attila                                     Attila spadiceus                                    heard EP

              Chestnut-crested Cotinga                           Ampelion rufaxilla                                 CS(NW)

              Golden-breasted Fruiteater                         Pipreola aureopectus                           SM,P

              Olivaceous Piha                                           Snowornis cryptolophus                      T

              Purple-throated Fruitcrow                            Querula purpurata                                EP

              Golden-winged Manakin                             Masius chrysopterus                           C,P,T

              White-bearded Manakin                              Manacus manacus                              EP,LV

              Black-crowned Tityra                                   Tityra inquisitor                                     SM

1            Masked Tityra                                               Tityra semifasciata                               SM

1            Cinnamon Becard                                        Pachyramphus cinnamomeus             EP,C,LV

0            One-coloured Becard                                  Pachyramphus homochrous               M

              Rufous-browed Peppershrike                     Cyclarhis gujanensis                            M

              Red-eyed Vireo                                             Vireo olivaceus                                     LF

              Golden-fronted Greenlet                             Hylophilus aurantiifrons                        LV

              Black-collared Jay                                        Cyanolyca armillata                              RB

1            Black-chested Jay                                        Cyanocorax affinis                               EP,SM,heard LV

              Green Jay                                                      Cyanocorax yncas                              P,CS,OQ

              Blue-and-white Swallow                               Pygochelidon cyanoleuca                    widespread

              Brown-bellied Swallow                                 Orochelidon murina                              CH,LF,RB

              Southern Rough-winged Swallow              Stelgidopteryx ruficollis                        EP,B,SM,LV

              Grey-breasted Martin                                   Progne chalybea                                  V

              Scaly-breasted Wren                                    Microcerculus marginatus                   heard EP

              House Wren                                                  Troglodytes aedon                               widespread

              Sedge/Grass Wren                                       Cistothorus platensis aequatorialis      LN

1            Bicoloured Wren                                          Campylorhynchus griseus                   near EP,C,M,LV

              Whiskered Wren                                          Pheugopedius mystacalis                    C,B

              Rufous Wren                                                 Cinnycerthia unirufa                             CH

              Sharpe's Wren                                              Cinnycerthia olivascens                       T

              White-breasted Wood-Wren                       Henicorhina leucosticta                        EP,heard LV

              Grey-breasted Wood-Wren                         Henicorhina leucophrys                       widespread

              Chestnut-breasted Wren                              Cyphorhinus thoracicus                       heard P & OQ

              Long-billed Gnatwren                                  Ramphocaenus melanurus                  P

0            White-capped Dipper                                  Cinclus leucocephalus                         CS

              Andean Solitaire                                           Myadestes ralloides                             heard P,T,CS & OQ

              Orange-billed Nightingale-Thrush             Catharus aurantiirostris                       heard B

              Grey-cheeked Thrush                                  Catharus minimus                                C

              Swainson's Thrush                                      Catharus ustulatus                               SM,OQ,LV

0            Yellow-legged Thrush                                 Turdus  flavipes                                   C,SM

1            Clay-coloured Thrush                                  Turdus grayi                                         SM

1            Pale-breasted Thrush                                   Turdus leucomelas                              SM

1            Black-billed Thrush                                      Turdus ignobilis                                    C,SM,P,J,LV

              Black-hooded Thrush                                  Turdus olivater                                     SM

1            Great Thrush                                                 Turdus fuscater                                   widespread

1            Glossy-black Thrush                                   Turdus serranus                                  CH,SM,CS

1            Tropical Mockingbird                                  Mimus gilvus                                        C

              White-capped Tanager                                Sericossypha albocristata                   RB (NW)

              Rufous-crested Tanager                              Creurgops verticalis                             T

1            Black-capped Hemispingus                        Hemispingus atropileus                        RB

              Superciliaried Hemispingus                        Hemispingus superciliaris                    J,RB

              Black-eared Hemispingus                           Hemispingus melanotis                        RB

1            Grey-hooded Bush-Tanager                       Cnemoscopus rubrirostris                   CS,RB

1            Grey-headed Tanager                                 Eucometis penicillata                            EP,LV

              White-shouldered Tanager                         Tachyphonus luctuosus                      M

              White-lined Tanager                                    Tachyphonus rufus                              SM

1            Flame-rumped Tanager                               Ramphocelus flammigerus                  C,T,J,LV

              Lemon-rumped Tanager                              Ramphocelus flammigerus icteronotus  M

              Crimson-backed Tanager                            Ramphocelus dimidiatus                    LV

              Ochre-breasted Tanager                             Chlorothraupis stolzmanni                 T

1            Blue-grey Tanager                                        Thraupis episcopus                             widespread

              Palm Tanager                                                Thraupis palmarum                              widespread

              Hooded Mountain-Tanager                         Buthraupis montana                             CH,T

              Santa Marta Mountain-Tanager                   Anisognathus melanogenys                 SM

1            Lachrymose Mountain-Tanager                  Anisognathus lacrymosus                   CS,J,RB

              Blue-winged Mountain-Tanager                 Anisognathus somptuosus                  P,RB

              Black-chinned Mountain-Tanager              Anisognathus notabilis                         T

1            Scarlet-bellied Mountain-Tanager              Anisoganthus igniventris                      CH,LN

              Buff-breasted Mountain-Tanager                Dubusia taeniata                                  RB

1            Golden-crowned Tanager                           Iridosornis rufivertex                            CS,LN

              Fawn-breasted Tanager                                                                                            OQ

              Glistening-green Tanager                           Chlorochrysa phoenicotis                    T

              Golden-naped Tanager                               Tangara ruficervix                                C

              Black-headed Tanager                                Tangara cyanoptera                            SM

1            Scrub Tanager                                              Tangara vitriolina                                  C,P,J,LV

1            Blue-necked Tanager                                   Tangara cyanicollis                              C,J,LV

              Speckled Tanager                                        Tangara guttata                                    B,P

0            Blue-and-black Tanager                              Tangara vassorii                                  CH,CS,LN

              Beryl-spangled Tanager                              Tangara nigroviridis                             T,LV

              Plain-coloured Tanager                               Tangara inornata                                  EP

              Rufous-throated Tanager                            Tangara rufigula                                   T

1            Bay-headed Tanager                                   Tangara gyrola                                     C,SM,PLV

              Saffron-crowned Tanager                           Tangara xanthocephala                       C,T

              Golden Tanager                                           Tangara arthus                                    P,T,LV

1            Swallow Tanager                                          Tersina viridis                                       SM

              Purple Honeycreeper                                   Cyanerpes caeruleus                          C

              Scarlet-browed Tanager                              Heterospingus xanthopygius               EP

              Blue-backed Conebill                                   Conirostrum sitticolor                           CH

1            Capped Conebill                                          Conirostrum albifrons                           RB

              White-eared Conebill                                   Conirostrum leucogenys                      EP(GW)

0            Rusty Flowerpiercer                                     Diglossa sittoides                                 SM

              Glossy Flowerpiercer                                  Diglossa lafresnayi                               CS,LN

              Black Flowerpiercer                                     Diglossa humeralis                               CH,SM,LN

              White-sided Flowerpiercer                          Diglossa albilatera                                SM,T

              Indigo Flowerpiercer                                   Diglossa indigotica                               T

              Bluish Flowerpiercer                                    Diglossa caerulescens                        CH,CS

0            Masked Flowerpiercer                                 Diglossa cyanea                                  CH,CS

              Plushcap                                                       Catamblyrhynchus diadema                RB

              Slate-coloured Grosbeak                             Saltator grossus                                   RB

              Buff-throated Saltator                                   Saltator maximus                                 SM

              Black-winged Saltator                                  Saltator atripennis                                J

              Greyish Saltator                                            Saltator coerulescens                          C,B,M

              Streaked Saltator                                          Saltator striatipectus                            C,SM

              Fulvous Shrike-Tanager                              Lanio fulvus                                          C

              Bananaquit                                                    Coereba flaveola                                  EP,C,B,SM,M

              Rufous-collared Sparrow                             Zonotrichia capensis                            widespread

1            Plumbeous Sierra-Finch                              Phrygilus unicolor                                 LN

1            Saffron Finch                                                Sicalis flaveola                                      near LF,EP,C,LV

              Blue-black Grassquit                                    Volatinia jacarina                                  C,SM,LV

              Grey Seedeater                                             Sporophila intermedia                           LV

              Yellow-bellied Seedeater                             Sporophila nigricollis                             C,B,LV

1            Ruddy-breasted Seedeater                          Sporophila minuta                                 LV

              Large-billed Seed-Finch                              Oryzoborus crassirostris                     EP,SM

              Paramo Seedeater                                        Catamenia homochroa                         SM,LN

0            Plain-coloured Seedeater                            Catamenia inornata                              LN

0            Band-tailed Seedeater                                  Catamenia analis                                  LN

              Orange-billed Sparrow                                Arremon aurantiirostris                        C

1            Golden-winged Sparrow                             Arremon schlegeli                                M

              Chestnut-capped Brush-Finch                   Arremon brunneinucha                        C,P,T,LV

              Stripe-headed (Colombian) Brush-Finch  Arremon torquatus basilicus                SM

              Moustached Brush-Finch                            Atlapetes albofrenatus                         B

              White-naped Brush-Finch                           Atlapetes albinucha                              LV

1            Santa Marta Brush-Finch                             Atlapetes melanocephalus                   SM

              Pale-naped Brush-Finch                             Atlapetes pallidinucha                           RB

1            Tricoloured Brush-Finch                             Atlapetes tricolor                                  T

1            Slaty Brush-Finch                                         Atlapetes schistaceus                          CS,J,RB

              Rose-breasted Grosbeak                             Pheucticus ludovicianus                      C,SM

              Blue-black Grosbeak                                    Cyanocompsa cyanoides                    C

              Summer Tanager                                          Piranga rubra                                       EP,LV

              Common Bush-Tanager                              Chlorospingus ophthalmicus                B,P

              Yellow-throated Bush-Tanager                   Chlorospingus flavigularis                    P,T

              Dusky Bush-Tanager                                   Chlorospingus semifuscus                  T

1            Black-backed Bush-Tanager                       Urothraupis stolzmanni                        LN

1            Tennessee Warbler                                      Vermivora peregrina                            SM

              Yellow Warbler                                              Dendroica petechia                              M

              Bay-breasted Warbler                                   Dendroica castanea                             EP,C

              Blackburnian Warbler                                   Dendroica fusca                                   widespread

              American Redstart                                        Setophaga ruticilla                                SM,M

              Black-and-white Warbler                             Mniotilta varia                                       SM,M,LV

              Prothonotary Warbler                                  Protonotaria citrea                                C,M

              Northern Waterthrush                                  Seiurus noveboracensis                      LV

              Connecticut Warbler                                    Oporornis agilis                                    LV(NW)

              Mourning Warbler                                        Oporornis philadelphia                         C

              Canada Warbler                                            Wilsonia canadensis                            C,RB

1            Slate-throated Whitestart                             Myioborus miniatus                              widespread

0            Golden-fronted Whitestart                          Myioborus ornatus                               CH,C,CS,J,RB,LV

              Citrine Warbler                                              Basileuterus luteoviridis                       RB

              White-lored Warbler                                     Basileuterus conspicillatus                   SM

              Russet-crowned Warbler                             Basileuterus coronatus                        RB

1            Golden-crowned Warbler                            Basileuterus culicivorus                       M

0            Rufous-capped Warbler                               Basileuterus rufifrons                           M

0            Three-striped Warbler                                  Basileuterus tristriatus                         P,T

0            Santa Marta Warbler                                     Basileuterus basilicus                          SM

              Buff-rumped Warbler                                    Phaeothlypis fulvicauda                       EP,LV

              Russet-backed Oropendola                        Psarocolius angustifrons                     C,M,LV

              Chestnut-headed Oropendola                    Psarocolius wagleri                              EP,C

1            Crested Oropendola                                    Psarocolius decumanus                      SM

              Mountain Cacique                                        Cacicus chrysonotus                           CH,C,

1            Yellow-backed Oriole                                   Icterus chrysater                                 C,SM

              Orange-crowned Oriole                              Icterus auricapillus                               EP

              Baltimore Oriole                                            Icterus galbula                                      SM,M

              Yellow-hooded Blackbird                            Chrysomus icterocephalus                  LF

              Giant Cowbird                                               Molothrus oryzivorus                           EP,SM

              Shiny Cowbird                                              Molothrus bonariensis                          LF,C,LV

1            Great-tailed Grackle                                     Quiscalus mexicanus                          SM airport

              Red-breasted Blackbird                               Sturnella militaris                                  near EP

              Eastern Meadowlark                                     Sturnella magna                                   CH

1            Andean Siskin                                              Carduelis spinescens                          LF,LN

              Yellow-bellied Siskin                                    Carduelis xanthogastra                        J

              Trinidad Euphonia                                       Euphonia trinitatis                                 M

0            Thick-billed Euphonia                                 Euphonia laniirostris                             C,M,LV

1            Blue-naped Chlorophonia                          Chlorophonia cyanea                           SM





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