NORTHEAST BRAZIL: SEPT 22 – OCT 12  2015        


Report by Jon Hornbuckle and Richard Fairbank




This is the report of a very successful trip to NE Brazil where Ciro Albano brilliantly guided and drove Richard Fairbank, Rod Martins, Barry Wright and myself for the best part of three weeks. We booked the highly recommended Ciro several months in advance as he said he could show us most of the birds, and many more, that we wanted to see in NE Brazil, and recommended that we restrict our party to four people as that was all he could take comfortably in his car.  We followed his proposed itinerary at first but as the birding was going so well, he suggested that we had time to visit an extra inland area to look for birds rarely seen on tours. This we did, so our trip was probably the most successful ever undertaken in NE Brazil as our only significant failure was Stresemann’s Bristlefront, which we only heard and seems to be down to just one last pair in existence, at the only known site for it. The weather was mainly very good with little time lost due to heavy rain and the only serious mishap was Richard’s permanent loss of his memory cards and therefore most of his photos, near the end of the trip..


I had participated in a 7 week trip in 1995 with a few friends, covering some of the NE, so had seen many of the birds we encountered on this new trip.  Nevertheless, I was well satisfied with 28 new birds for my list, plus 2 undescribed species and at least 5 that have been split from existing species by the Brazilian taxonomic authorities but not accepted yet by the IOC. We also had unforgettable spectacles such as some 300 Lear’s Macaws gradually leaving their roost canyons (I only saw 2 in 1995), Giant Snipe and rare White-collared Kites in display flight, rarely seen Pfrimers Parakeets packed together eating bunches of ripe fruit, and magnificent Araripe Manakins.

My new birds were:-

  1. Solitary Tinamou

2.      White-browed Guan

3.      East Brazilian Chachalaca

4.      White-collared Kite

5.      Giant Snipe

6.      Black-capped Screech-Owl

7.      Pygmy Nightjar

8.      White-winged Potoo

9.      Hook-billed Hermit

10.   Ochraceous Piculet

11.   Ochre-backed Woodpecker

12.   Pfrimer’s Parakeet

13.   Grey-breasted Parakeet

14.   Pink-legged Graveteiro

15.   Pernambuco Foliage-gleaner

16.   Sincoro Antwren

17.   Pectoral  Antwren

18.   Alagoas Antwren

19.   Orange-bellied Antwren

20.   Bahia Antwren

21.   White-browed Antpitta

22.   Bahia Tapaculo

23.   Diamantina Tapaculo

24.   Araripe Manakin

25.   Ceara Gnateater

26.   Hooded Gnateater

27.   Collared Crescentchest

28.   Sao Francisco Sparrow


Additional five splits and two undescribed species:-

Margaretta’s Hermit – Great-billed Hermit split

Todd’s Woodcreeper – Amazonian Barred split

Northern Lesser Woodcreeper – Lesser split

Pernambuco Woodcreeper – Plain-winged split

Ceara Leaftosser – Rufous-breasted split

 “Cryptic” Treehunter   - Heliobletus sp. Nov.

“Pernambuco” Eared Pygmy-Tyrant – Myiornis sp. nov.




22nd September.  Fly from Sao Paulo to Fortaleza, arriving at 16:30, meet Ciro Albano then 3 hour drive to Guaramiranga town in the Serra de Baturite. Night at Alto da Serra hotel.  


23rd September.   05:00 bird around hotel and along nearby road, breakfast then short drive to Fazenda Gameleira to bird farmland and open woodland.  11:00 drive 6 hours W to a forest patch on the Serra da Ibiapaba, short birding, night at Padre Cissero Hotel..

24th September.   05:00 return to the forest on Ibiapaba for two hours birding, then breakfast at hotel, leaving at 09:00 for 6.5 hour drive back towards Fortaleza then S to Quixada. arriving at 15:30. Check in at lovely Pedra dos Ventos resort on isolated hillside surrounded by dry forest, bird till dusk then excellent dinner.


25th September.  05:20 bird around resort for an hour, big breakfast at 06:30, leave at 07:45 for 5 hour drive S to Crato town at the base of Chapada do Araripe. Head to Arajara Water Park and spend the rest of the daylight observing and photographing Araripe Manakins. Night in Crato at Hotel Portal del Crato.

26th September.  leave Crato at 05:30 for 20 min drive to caatinga on the edge of the plateau. Bird dry forest here for three hours, return to hotel at 08:20 for breakfast then drive S for 6 hours to Canudos, stopping twice to check the caatinga. Night at Hotel Brasil in Canudos.

 27th September.  04:00 drive to Lear’s Macaw 'reserve' on a privately owned facenda, park and wait close to the edge of a canyon where the Lear’s roost, eventually having great views of them perched and flying around in good light before dispersing.  Return to hotel for breakfast, leave at 08:25 for long drive to Alagoas, stopping on the way at Ciro’s site for Pectoral Antwren, arriving near Murici town late afternoon. Night at Quiombo Park Hotel.


28th September.  04:00  drive to Murici Reserve, arriving at 05:30, the last 5km along a very poor track.  Stop at largest remnant patch of forest, take trail into the forest, along the ridge for several hours seeing lots of birds, return to the car, arriving at 15:00. Drive down to Quiombo Park Hotel for the night.


 29th September.  04:00 two hour drive NE to Jaqueira Reserve, then bird along dirt road through lower part of reserve; drive  into  low hills, bird till 08:30. Having seen all possible target species, head towards the coast near Tamandare for Forbes’s Blackbird and Pinto Spinetail, seeing both with ease.  As we were doing so well on the targets, agree with Ciro’s proposal to press on south to save a day and go to unscheduled sites for extra birds.  Drive 500km, back into Alagoas and on to Sergipe, arriving in Estancia at 21:00. Night at Hotel Magnus on edge of town.


30th September.  05:00  short drive to Crasto Forest,  bird along the road,  continue to  mangroves then palms for good views of Golden-tailed Parrotlets and Jandaya Parakeets. Return to hotel at 08:30 for breakfast then leave for another long (550km) drive SE to Chapada Diamantina in Bahia, stop at touristy Lencois for 2 nights in pleasant Aguiar Pousada.

1st October.  05:00 drive into scenic Chapada Diamantina, spend several hours on trail along the valley for Hooded Visorbearer, Collared Crescentchest and other good birds. Breakfast by the car, drive back through Lencois to dry scrub beyond Palmeiras for Sao Francisco Sparrow, no success.  Move on to Mucure for Diamantina Tapaculo in the dry scrub then farmland for seedeaters, the rest of the day looking for Horned Sungem, unsuccessfully, in more scrubland, returning to Lencois at 19:30. 

2nd October.  04.30 drive from Lencois to a Sao Francisco Sparrow site beyond Palmeiras, arrive at 05:45 and eventually have good views of the Sparrow.  Long drive through flat uninteresting country to Sao Desiderio at 16:00.  Luis, a friend Ciro had contacted, takes us to an area of dry woodland where we stay till dusk, seeing some good birds. Night in a modest hotel in Sao Desiderio. 

3rd October.  05:30 Luis takes us to a different area of dry forest in Terra Ronca State Park where the star bird is a very responsive Pheasant Cuckoo,  then drive SW to cerrado on the Goias border.  Horned Sungem search fails again so we continue to Terra Ronca State Park, a good site for Pfrimer’s Parakeet. Drive back to the cerrado, find a perched Horned Sungem at last then continue to Corrientina, arriving at Pousada dos Sonhos at 19:30.

4th October.  04:25, drive SE for four hours to dry forest 5km S of Brejinho das Ametistas in Caetite; very productive 1.5 hours then continue E for 5 hours to Boa Nova, arriving at 15:00. Go to the wet forest SE of town for some good birding, at dusk see Giant Snipe in boggy area. Night at Pousada dos Passaros.

5th October.  Breakfast at 04:30, drive to nearby forest soon after dawn, spend most of morning on excellent forest trail. Return to Boa Nova for lunch, drive to Mata de Cipo, a higher dry area with many flowering cacti attractive to hummingbirds, arriving 15:15 after stopping on the way to check a patch of dry scrubby forest for antbirds. Stay till dusk then return to Pousada dos Passaros.


6th October.  Breakfast at 04:30, drive from Boa Nova to Reserva Agua Boa, a small private reserve, for Bahia Tapaculo.  After more forest birding drive on to a site for Margaretta’s Hermit which Ciro locates after some considerable effort.  Back on the main road head SE to Camacan, check in at Pousada Primavera, and head out to visit a nearby patch of lowland forest. After a few birds, abandon birding for the day as the drizzle intensifies to heavy rain.


7th October.  05:00 return to lowland forest patch but rained off so continue to Serra Bonita private reserve. Arriving at the impressive research centre and lodge, meet the owner Vitor Becker on the veranda, and spend some time watching tanagers at the excellent feeders, then bird along the road returning to the centre for lunch. It rains for much of the day but do some birding in the forest, interspersed with some time watching the feeders. After evening meal of soup, Vitor shows us his incredible moth collection of over 300,000 specimens.


8thOctober.   Pre-dawn moth session at 04:00 then after breakfast walk up steep trail to look for an undescribed (Bahia) Treehunter high in the canopy. Leave mid-morning for a long journey to Almenara in Minas Gerais, arriving at 16:00, about two hours from Mata do Passarinho Reserve, the Stresemann’s Bristlefront reserve, tomorrow’s objective. We stay in the Sesc Almenara in a fenced resort complex on the edge of town.


9th October.  04:00 drive to Mata do Passarinho Reserve, the road culminating in a steep climb for several kms, finally arriving at a deserted house at 06:00. After a quick breakfast take trail into the remnant forest, steadily climbing to the top where Ciro had seen a pair with a juv six weeks earlier. With no sign of the birds we head down into the steep valley-side to where weak Bristlefront calls can be heard.  After three hours near the bottom of the valley, hearing occasional calls from the other side but no sign of movement, we give up and walk back down to the car, flushing single Tataupa and Brown Tinamous off the trail, and watch a pair of very obliging Three-toed Jacamars. At the Bahia entrance to the park we see a few tanagers and four more Three-toed Jacamars while having a picnic, then leave at 14:00 for the long drive to Puerto Seguro. This takes two hours longer than it should have as the ferry is not working because the river is too low, so we don’t reach Puerto Seguro till 20:25. Night at the cheap Pousada Pedra Azul.


10th October. 05:00 drive to Veracel forest and on to a more open area in the reserve, with good birding, eg Hook-billed Hermit, Bare-throated Bellbird and White-winged Cotinga. By 10:00 it is quite hot and activity drops off so we return to Puerto Seguro.   The beach is disappointing, high tide not helping; return to Veracel at 15:00, birding along narrow tracks until dark, eventually have great views of a White-winged Potoo perched atop a dead palm stump, a tree-roosting Solitary Tinamou and a calling Black-capped Screech Owl before returning to Veracel for another night at Pousada Pedra Azul.


11th October.  04:30 return to open forest at Veracel at 05:00, not much cotinga activity for an hour until the fruiting tree watched yesterday is visited by cotingas including an immature male Banded Cotinga. It is hot by 09.30 so we return to Puerto Seguro and prepare to leave.  Ciro drops us at the airport and we await our flights to Sao Paulo:  Barry and Richard fly home via Madrid while Jon and Rod meet up with Neil, Duncan and Nick, arriving from the UK, and Adrian Rupp who will guide us around SE Brazil.



DIARY:    Richard Fairbank’s Blog edited by JH.

includes many photos.


Tuesday 22nd September.  We met at Sao Paulo International Airport at about 06:30 local time.and transferred to a domestic terminal to wait for the TAM flight to Fortaleza, departing at 13:10. The flight departed on time and landed in Fortaleza at 16:30, after crossing the impressive Rio Sao Francisco, marking the northern border of Bahia, after about two thirds of the way.  We met Ciro Albano by the airport entrance and were taken to his Renault Duster in the car park, with a nearby pair of Red-cowled Cardinals our first NE endemic, followed by a tame pair of Masked Water-Tyrants. We then drove for three hours, mostly in darkness, to the town of Guaramiranga in the Serra de Baturite where we stayed in the Alto da Serra chalets.  We had our first meal of the trip and started a kitty of which I kept a log.


Wednesday 23rd September.  We were up at 05:00 as it was getting light and birded around the hotel and along a nearby road through forest, seeing Ceara Gnateater, Short-tailed Antthrush, Ochraceous Piculet and Black-capped Antwren. We were at a moderate altitude and it was a very pleasant if cloudy and somewhat cool.  We returned to the hotel for a late buffet breakfast, which ended up more like brunch, before driving a short distance to Fazenda Gameleira, a private farm surrounded by open woodland.  Here we saw Grey-breasted Parakeets, Gould’s Toucanet and Wing-banded Hornero, and nearby a male Band-tailed Manakin.  We left at 11:00 for the 6 hour drive west towards the Ceara/Piaui border and a forest patch on the Serra da Ibiapaba.  At a petrol and snack/ice-cream stop at an isolated garage on the way, Barry found our first Caatinga Cachalote  and my only Pale Baywing of the trip.  The forest near Tiangua was excellent although it took half an hour to drive there on increasingly narrower tracks and we only had 45 minutes birding time before the light went.  It was enough for some of us to see Hooded Gnateater, Ceara Leaftosser and Northern Lesser Woodcreeper.  Most of the drive back to Tiangua was in the dark, the route somewhat resembling a maze so it was no surprise that we once took a wrong turning. We had a cheap meal and stayed in the Padre Cicero Hotel. It had been a brilliant first day.

Thursday 24th September.   We left the hotel at about 05:00 and returned to the patch of forest we had visited the previous evening, arriving just after dawn.  Hooded Gnateaters performed better with us all seeing them well, a superb bird.  We also saw Spotted Piculet, Blue-crowned Trogon and Blue-backed Manakin.  We left after two hours and returned to the hotel for a big breakfast, leaving just before 09:00 for the 6.5 hour drive back towards Fortaleza and then south to Quixada.  A roadside lake gave both Least and Pied-billed Grebes and a Black-chested Buzzard-Eagle high up on a large rocky outcrop.  We arrived at Quixada at about 15:30 and checked in at Pedro dos Ventos, a superb lodge on an isolated hillside surrounded by dry forest.   First off we examined the bare rocky slopes by the restaurant where we quickly found three sandy Pygmy Nightjars at their regular roosting site.  They were quite active, shuffling around and jumping up and down, possibly nervous of our presence although soon flew if approached too closely.  Near the lodge was a small lake at the foot of the forested hillside.  We birded in this area and found it particularly productive, seeing a pair of White-browed Guans coming in to drink, Grey-necked Wood-Rail, Ochre-backed Woodpecker, Long-billed Wren, a tail-less White-naped Jay, a flock of Scarlet-throated Tanagers and another Pygmy Nightjar flushed from another small open rocky area.  It had been another brilliant day, and the food in the lodge was excellent too.


Friday 25th September.  We were out at 05:20 to find it already light.  We birded around the lodge for an hour seeing 3 White-browed Guans by the swimming pool and a small flock of White-naped Jays by the lodge.  Ciro heard a Caatinga Spot-backed Puffbird calling from up on the hillside so we headed along a track towards it, Barry picking it up on the ridge.  We continued a short distance along the track seeing a much closer Puffbird, a superb buffy coloured Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl, Caatinga Barred Antshrike, Black-bellied Antwren, Broad-tipped Hermit, Sooty-fronted Spinetail, Ochraceous Piculet and a male Ochre-backed Woodpecker.  We returned for a big breakfast at 06:30 and left, after a final look at the Pygmy Nightjars, at 07:45.  It was a 5 hour drive due south to Chapada do Araripe where our main target resided, the stunning Araripe Manakin which was discovered as recently as 1996 and only occurs along a 60km escarpment where it lives near clear water streams.  No pressure then!  We had a couple of roadside stops on the way south including a wetland area where there were 40 Southern Pochard, Muscovy and Masked Duck, American Purple Gallinule, Campo Troupial and Caatinga Cachalote.  We arrived in the town of Crato and headed to the Arajara Water Park at the foot of the Chapada, one of the easiest places to find the Manakin.  It was a short walk around the side of a primitive theme park (big model dinosaurs) to the lush forest at the foot of the escarpment.  We saw a male Manakin almost immediately but no sooner had we seen it than it was off.  We stayed in the area for the rest of the afternoon and I saw at least 8 Manakins although it took me a couple of hours to get photos I was happy with, now lost on one of my cards.  We also saw Tawny Piculet, Euler’s and Black-tailed Flycatchers, Pectoral Sparrow and a White-tufted Marmoset.  We returned to town where we stayed in the Hotel Poto del Crato and had a forgettable meal.  There were mosquitoes in our rooms but fortunately the air-con soon sorted them out.  Another superb day -  the Araripe Manakins were all I had hoped they would be, absolutely brilliant, and almost made the trip worthwhile on their own, but there was a lot more to see in the days ahead so I bought the T-shirt (two actually) and we were ready to move on.

Saturday 26th September.  We left our hotel in Crato at 05:30 for a 20 minute drive to an excellent patch of Caatinga on the edge of Serra de Araripe.  We birded the dry forest here for three hours seeing Great Xenops (even better than expected), White-browed Antpitta (ditto), Silvery-cheeked and Planalto Slaty Antshrikes, Stripe-backed Antbird, Caatinga and Black-bellied Antwrens, Pale-bellied Tyrant-Manakin, Grey-eyed Greenlet (surprisingly smart), Cinnamon Tanager and a rather tatty Ruby-Topaz Hummingbird.  At 08:20, having seen all that was likely and with it starting to get hot, we returned to the hotel for our usual big breakfast.  We left Crato an hour later for the six hour drive south to Canudos.  We soon left Ceara state which had been brilliant and entered Pernambuco.  We had petrol and lunch stops on the way south before crossing into Bahia.  Just outside Canudos we visited two areas of Caatinga.  At the first we birded along tracks through rather thick woodland, seeing Stripe-breasted Starthroat (but unfortunately not a full male), Narrow-billed Woodcreeper, Red-shouldered Spinetail, Great Xenops (again), Pileated Finch and Greater Wagtail-Tyrant.  The second stop was more open and we stayed till dusk seeing Spotted Piculet, Lesser Wagtail-Tyrant, Southern Scrub-Flycatcher and some high-flying Least Nighthawks.  We drove the short distance to Canudos, checked into the Hotel Brasil and after a meal had an early night with the prospect of a 04:00 start to be at a Lear’s Macaw roost site for dawn.

Sunday 27th September.  We left the hotel at 04:00 and drove to the Lear’s Macaw 'reserve' on a privately owned facenda where a traditional roost site in red canyons was protected.  We headed down a dirt track and soon came across a friend of Ciro’s who was waiting for us in the dark.  He had a pick-up and after a quick chat with Ciro opened a gate for us to follow him, which we did for 2-3 kms.  We parked and waited at a bench close to the edge of the canyon in which the birds roosted.  It was one of only two known roost sites and birds moved between sites depending on how close they were to the palms they were feeding on.  The macaws travel up to 100kms to find palms in fruit, but both roost sites usually hold several hundred birds.  We waited and as it started to get light heard birds calling from the canyon below.  Soon small flocks were flying out of the canyon and I had counted about 60 macaws when two larger flocks flew by with over 100 birds in them.  Very impressive.  Twos and threes were flying around, some landing on nearby cactus.  We approached the canyon rim and could see a group of over 30 on the cliff edge opposite.  We had great views of them there and flying around in good light before they dispersed.  The blue of the macaws against the reddish walls of the canyon was a truly memorable sight.  Quite a few were perched in tree tops at the head of the canyon and Barry counted over 100 in a quick scan.    We dragged ourselves away to visit the reserve centre and pay our $50 entrance fee.  Well worth it to help protect the area.  Also seen were Blue-crowned Parakeets, Velvety Black-Tyrant and Cliff Flycatcher.  We felt 300 Lear’s Macaws a reasonable estimate of those we had seen.  We returned to the hotel for our usual big breakfast and left at 08:25.  We had another long drive ahead of us, this time east towards the coast.  We had a short stop to look for Pectoral Antwren by the road outside Jeremoabo, soon taped in by Ciro, and gave good views.  The rest of the journey was uneventful apart from a roadside stop for 7 Greater Rheas in a field and a White Monjita from the vehicle.  We were now in Alagoas and arrived at Murici late afternoon, seeing Pinnated Bittern and Limpkin but only hearing Yellow-breasted Crake, in an i9nb area of marshy grassland just outside the Quiombo Park Hotel where we would be staying for two nights.  It was not particularly close to our next birding sites but nowhere suitable was any nearer.  It was also very nice and some birding was possible in the grounds, provided we were around in daylight.


Monday 28th September.  We left the hotel at 04:00 to drive to Murici where we arrived at 05:30.  The last 5km or so were along a very poor track which was quite steep in places and would most likely have been impassable in the wet, even for Ciro’s 4WD.  We stopped at an excellent viewpoint on the edge of one of the largest remaining remnant forest patches in the area. Most of the rest had been cleared and replaced by grassland for grazing.  There was an impressive view east down to the coast, across patches of early morning mist, but sadly very few lowland forest patches remained.  The hotel had given us some sandwiches for breakfast and we ate them while scanning the forest edge, hearing and then seeing 5 Red-shouldered Macaws in isolated palms.  A good start which became even better when Barry picked up a large raptor that landed in view high in a distant tree.  It looked interesting through a telescope and Ciro quickly confirmed it was a White-collared Kite, one of our main targets for the area.  A second bird appeared and they proceeded to fly around, on one occasion attempting some butterfly-like flight display.  It was not yet 07:00 and seemed early for large raptors to be about but Ciro told us early morning was a good time to see the Kites.  We soon finished breakfast and headed to a trail Ciro knew that went into the forest.  We followed this trail along a ridge for several hours seeing lots of birds.  We reached a ravine and turned back to concentrate on a couple of target species we had not picked up on the way out, and were back at the car at 15:00.  We heard then saw a White-collared Kite displaying directly overhead (presumably one of the pair seen earlier), Black Jacobin, Long-tailed Woodnymph (unfortunately only a female), Black-cheeked Gnateater, Rufous-winged and Alagoas Antwrens (the only site the latter is now to be found), White-backed Fire-eye (distinctive Pernambuco race), Northern Lesser and Todd’s Woodcreepers, Pernambuco Foliage-gleaner, Red-headed, White-bearded and Blue-backed Manakins, Buff-throated Purpletuft, Black-headed Berrypecker, Screaming Piha, Thrush-like Schiffornis, Greyish Mourner and White-bellied Tody-Tyrant.  We returned to Quiombo Park Hotel and birded around the forest edge behind the hotel where Ciro quickly taped in a Seven-coloured Tanager.  We then returned to the damp grassland where we had heard Yellow-breasted Crake the previous evening but with no more success.  Despite this it had been another brilliant day with all possible targets seen, some of which were quite tricky and could have required a return visit.  For several we felt we were in the last chance saloon and Rod dubbed it ‘death row birding’. Alagoas Foliage-gleaner not having been seen for 5 years and the newly described Cryptic Treehunter and Pernambuco Pygmy Owl  going or more likely having gone the same way rather brought this home.


Tuesday 29th September.  We packed and left Quiombo at 04:00 for the two hour drive northeast to Jaqueira, back in Pernambuco or very close to the border.  We birded along a dirt road through the lower part of the reserve seeing Mantled Hawk, Sombre Hummingbird, Willis’s Antbird, Orange-bellied Antwren and Alagoas Tyrannulet before driving up into the low hills. Here we saw another early displaying White-collared Kite, Scalloped Antbird (excellent), Pernambuco Woodcreeper (another potential split), ‘Pernambuco’ Eared Pygmy-Tyrant (a new species awaiting formal recognition) and Long-billed Gnatwren (always nice to see).  By now it was 08:30 and we had seen all possible target species so we headed towards the coast near Tamandare.  Ciro took us to sites for Forbes’s Blackbird and Pinto Spinetail, both of which soon gave themselves up without setting the World alight.  We were doing so well on the targets that Ciro suggested we pressed on south to effectively save a day that could be better used elsewhere.  We were all in agreement and with 500km to drive and Ciro already having done 200km+ we left as it was already noon. It was a long drive south, broken only by stops for food and petrol.  We crossed back into Alagoas and then into Sergipe, arriving in Estancia at about 21:00.  We stayed in the rather ordinary but perfectly adequate Hotel Magnus on the edge of town. Epic driving from Ciro with many big lorries with trailers to contend with.


Wednesday 30th September.  We left our hotel at 05:00 for a short drive to Crasto Forest.  We birded along a short section of newly tarmacked road where we soon saw Stripe-necked Tody-Tyrant and the critically endangered Fringe-backed Fire-eye, first a female then an excellent male.  We continued to the edge of some mangroves.  Rufous Crab-Hawks were sometimes seen here but none were on view nor were any Mangrove Rails responsive.  A flock of 7 Channel-billed Toucans in a distant tree was nice but little else was evident and we soon moved on to an area of palms to look for parakeets.  Here we were successful, obtaining good views of a flock of 8 Golden-tailed Parrotlets and about 12 Jandaya Parakeets.  We returned to the hotel at 08:30 for a big breakfast and left for another long (550km) drive southeast, back into Bahia to Chapada Diamantina.  Some of the roads were badly potholed and lorries with trailers pulling out to avoid them made overtaking interesting although Ciro took it all in his stride.  We had our usual petrol and ice-cream stops and arrived in Lencois at 17:00 - Ciro had done brilliantly again.  Lencois was the first touristy town we had been to and as a result the first couple of hotels Ciro tried were full.  Third time lucky was the very pleasant Aguilar Pousada where we stayed for two nights.  We walked into the centre of town, 10 minutes away, and found a restaurant in a cobbled square.  The square’s gradient and rather unstable tables made for an interesting meal.  As well as some rather special birds Chapada Diamantina was very scenic and somewhere I was very much looking forward to visiting.

Thursday 1st October.  We heard a Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl calling outside Aguilar Pousada as we prepared to leave at 05:00.  The streetlights were just about bright enough for Rod to pick it out in a tree opposite - a good start to a much anticipated day.  We drove a short distance to a lightly wooded valley that opened up into more open country with impressive rocky outcrops of Chapada Diamantina around us. We spent several hours on a trail along the valley seeing two of the main birds of the trip for me - Hooded Visorbearer and Collared Crescentchest.  The former was a superb and interestingly named hummingbird and the latter, formerly considered to be a tapaculo, a newly recognised family for me.  We also saw Grey-backed Tachuri, Rufous-winged Antshrike, Sincora Antwren, Pale-breasted Spinetail, Stripe-tailed Yellow-Finch and Pale-throated Serra-Finch.  Back at the vehicle an East Brazilian Chachalaca was calling from, we thought, some distance away. We headed that way but almost immediately it, or another, flew around behind us as we were passing a patch of bushes and only Jon and Barry saw more than a shape. We had breakfast by the car and drove back through Lencois to some dry scrub past Palmeiras.  We stopped where the road followed a dry valley to the top of an escarpment to look for Sao Francisco Sparrow but none were responding – we would try again in the morning when they were more active. On the way I asked Ciro if we might see Black-throated Saltator, he said it would be no problem, which was encouraging, and five minutes later he saw one perched up by the road.  I asked Ciro about a lot of birds, many of which he found for us but none were as immediate as this.  The bird I was particularly hoping to see in the dry scrub was Horned Sungem, another nicely named hummingbird that I first became aware of in 1964 when collecting Brook Bond’s Tropical Birds picture cards.  Ciro was confident and we tried two areas.  At the first a Sungem flew past Barry, did a double-take and shot off.  I was less than 30m away but much too slow.  Half an hour later it or another hummingbird shot past but I didn’t get an identifiable view.  Frustrating.  We moved on to Mucure where Ciro knew a Diamantina Tapaculo territory.  He set up a speaker and we retreated and waited.  It did not take long for the bird to come creeping in to see off its rival, giving us excellent views of a normally very secretive family.  We returned to the dryer scrub nearby seeing Rusty-backed Antwren, Rufous-sided Tody-Tyrant and White-banded Tanager.  We had no further luck with Sungem although a White-vented Violetear raised my stress levels when first seen poorly.  We tried an area of farmland good for seedeaters seeing White-throated, White-bellied, Yellow-bellied and Copper, and spent the remainder of the day in another area of scrub where as well as White-vented Violetear, a pair of Hooded Visorbearers raised and dashed my hopes of a Sungem.  Hard to imagine being slightly disappointed at seeing a pair of Visorbearers, especially as they had been new that morning at our first stop.  That is often how foreign birding goes, see something new, enjoy it and move on to the next …  We were out till dusk and did not return to Lencois until 19:30.  It had been another brilliant day, even if I had been a bit frustrated at not seeing Sungem.  We were a day ahead of schedule and doing well at Diamantina so Ciro set out a plan to head inland, as far as Goias(!!), to look for a few rarely seen species.  He was happy to drive and so we were keen to try it.  We ate another pizza in town and bought food for breakfast.  It would be a long day.

Friday 2nd October.  We left Lencois at 04:30 and drove to the Sao Francisco Sparrow site beyond Palmeiras where we arrived at 05:45.  We tried a couple of sections of the escarpment road without success before parking near the top and walking back down.  After about an hour of searching Rod had a glimpse of a green sparrow but it slipped away.  We continued in a rather spread-out fashion with Ciro some way ahead when he heard a sparrow.  We eventually all had superb views and we moved on to one of the Sungem sites where again a White-vented Violetear caused a moment of hope.  We saw a Crab-eating Fox by the road and wondered how close the nearest crabs were.  We tried two other areas nearby, having breakfast and seeing White-rumped and Lowland Hepatic Tanagers and more Collared Crescentchests (me only one poorly) but at 08:45 it was time to leave. Ciro was confident we would see Horned Sungem but my nerves were finding it hard to take with false alarms most times we tried.  It was a long drive through flat uninteresting country crossing vast dustbowl-type farms with threatening grey clouds on the horizon. The roads were thankfully quiet with mostly big agricultural lorries and we made excellent progress. There was little to stop for other than petrol and snacks with a flock of at least 16 Campo Troupials feeding on rotting fruit in one car park.  Ciro had been in contact with a birding friend, Luis, who had agreed to show us some of his local sites and we met him on the edge of Sao Desiderio when we arrived at 16:00.  We immediately followed him to a nearby area of dry woodland where we stayed until dusk.  Few of the trees had leaves on and it felt very much like early spring.  We saw Small-billed Tinamou (found by Rod after we had all walked past it), Blue-crowned Trogon, a distant Moustached Woodcreeper (well spotted Barry), Caatinga Black-Tyrant and Ash-throated Casiornis.  Walking back 2 short-tailed Nighthawks bombed us and we heard Tropical Screech-Owl.  Luis took us to a hotel in town, not the best we had stayed in but perfectly adequate, and a nearby restaurant where we had pizza.

Saturday 3rd October.  We left our hotel at 05:30 after an early breakfast and followed Luis to a different area of dry forest.  It was brilliantly spring-like with lots of song and activity.  Here a very responsive Pheasant Cuckoo was the star bird, and something I had hoped to see for years but never really expected to.  Ciro had heard from Luis that one had arrived in the area recently and it was the chance of seeing it that for me was the biggest draw of our long trip inland.  I was not disappointed, other than to later lose the photos I took of it!  We also saw Ornate Hawk-Eagle, Rusty-breasted Nunlet, Caatinga Puffbird, Ochre-backed Woodpecker, Moustached (much better views) and Wagler’s Woodcreepers (a potential split from Scaled) and Sibilant Syristes.  We said our goodbyes to Luis, quite a character and the only other birder we met in Brazil, and continued southwest to an area of cerrado near Sao Domingo on the border with Goias.  Horned Sungem was possible here but we tried three different areas without any success, just lots of hummingbird-sized locusts that had me going each time one flew.  We were more fortunate with Chapada and Suiriri Flycatchers and also saw Red & Green Macaw and Checkered Woodpecker.  We heard a reasonably close Red-legged Seriema and headed in its direction but the cerrado was rather thick and it slipped away unseen.  We continued down into Goias and a wide river valley where the small reserve at Terra Ronca was a good area to see the very restricted Pfrimer’s Parakeet - they roost in caves in the red cliffs for which the area was notable and feed nearby during the day.  This proved to be the case with a flock of about 40 feeding in a fruiting tree right by the warden’s hut!  At least one Jandaya Parakeet was feeding with them and a Rufous Casiornis was nearby.  Still against the clock we returned to the car and drove back to the cerrado where, at what seemed like the tenth attempt and after a total of five hours of looking, Ciro heard a Horned Sungem which we quickly tracked down.  It was a female and if I’m honest a bit dull but it gave excellent views and was very much appreciated.  My nerves could finally take a break!  We continued west but were too far away to reach a Bahia Nighthawk site by the Rio Sao Francisco by dusk.  It is debatable if we would have even if we had seen the sungem at the first attempt.  We drove as far as Corrientina arriving at Pousada dos Sonhas at 19:30

Sunday 4th October.  With another long drive ahead, we left at 04:25, somewhat delayed.  We drove southeast for almost four hours to an area of dry forest about 5km S of Breginho das Amethistas.  It was a good site for Minas Gerias Tyrannulet and in an hour and a half we saw the Tyrannulet, Grey-breasted Sabrewing, Ochre-backed Woodpecker, Red-billed Scythebill, Silvery-cheeked Antshrike, Great Xenops (as impressive as ever), Helmeted Manakin and Tawny-crowned Pygmy-Tyrant.  It was then a long drive of over five hours east to Boa Nova.  We stopped for petrol and lunch where one paid by weight although I wandered off seeing a pair of Rufous Horneros building a nest behind the garage sign.  We arrived in Boa Nova at 15:00 and checked into the Pousada dos Passaros overlooking the main square, a birder-oriented lodge although we were the only guests.  We dumped our bags and headed to an area of wet forest southeast of town where we birded along a forest track.  Barry and Jon had visited Boa Nova previously but for Rod and me it was new, and brilliant. We saw Fork-tailed Pygmy-Tyrant, Yellow-lored Tody-Tyrant, Rio de Janeiro Antbird, Bahia Spinetail, White-eyed Foliage-Gleaner and best of all an amazing male Pin-tailed Manakin.  For me it was up there amongst the other really great birds seen on the trip.  We continued to a higher area to be at a small marsh at dusk.  We rather inelegantly climbed over a fence and as the light went a Giant Snipe responded to Ciro’s recording. A brief period of hide and seek ensued with at least two birds, flying if we approached too close but not before Barry and Jon managed a decent photo.  We returned to the hotel very happy and drove to the edge of town for a meal.  On returning Rod banged on our door and asked if we wanted to see an owl.  He had been outside for a smoke and a local had pointed it out in the top of the tallest tree on the edge of the square outside.  We didn’t even have to go outside to see it, in fact the angle was better from inside.  It was a Stygian Owl and my ninth new bird of the day!

Monday 5th October.  We were up before it was light, unsuccessfully checked the main square for the owl, had breakfast at 04:30 and drove to a nearby area of forest, parking along a track by the edge of it soon after dawn.  We started birding in the very open almost parkland a little way back down the track.  Here we quickly saw Pink-legged Graveteiro, a unique funarid discovered as recently as 1994. We spent most of the morning following an excellent trail up through the forest seeing Least Pygmy Owl, Spot-billed and Saffron Toucanets, Cinerous and Chestnut-backed Antshrikes, White-shouldered Fire-eye, Ferruginous Antbird, Rufous Gnateater, Striated Softtail, Bahia and Sooty-fronted Spinetails, White-collared Foliage-gleaner, Black-billed Scythebill, Pin-tailed Manakin and Blue-naped Chlorophonia. Scanning of the ridge, when it was visible, produced a Sloth and a King Vulture. We returned to Boa Nova for a pay-by- weight lunch before returning to the hotel.  Barry and I walked right round the tree the Stygian Owl had roosted on; it was not apparent but it was a thick tree. At 15:15 we set off for Mata de Cipo, a higher dryer area that was good for hummingbirds.  On the way we stopped and walked along a short section of road as it cut through a patch of dry, sharp scrubby forest.  Here Ciro found Slender Antbird and Narrow-billed Antwren in quick succession.  We drove further up, leaving the track we were on to reach a small hill.  From here it was a short walk to Mata de Cipo which was quite unlike anywhere I have been to before.  The top of the rounded hill was bare rock with many cacti and a line of whitish beachball-sized stones which did not seem to serve any purpose.  The cacti were like deflated footballs with tiny red flowers which opened as the sun went down and were particularly attractive to hummingbirds.  Not many were open when we arrived so we wandered around.  Barry found a Pygmy Nightjar, the same species we had seen at Quixada but looking quite different – a much darker race to blend in with the darker rocks. We saw Striped-backed Antbird and 2 Blue-winged Macaws flew over before it was time to concentrate on the hummingbirds.  I was particularly hoping for a good male Ruby-Topaz - Ciro had shown me some amazing photos he had taken on a previous visit, but they were a seasonal visitor and only just arriving.  We did see a male but it wasn’t quite the views I was hoping for.  A superb male Stripe-breasted Starthroat made up for it and we also saw Sapphire-spangled and Glittering-throated Emeralds and Swallow-tailed Hummingbird. We stayed until the light started to go and the temperature drop, and flushed a Scissor-tailed Nightjar on the way back to the car.  We returned to Pousada dos Passaros but the Stygian Owl was not apparent in the main square.  It had been a ‘big birding day’ in Brazil when observers saw how many species they could record.  Ciro had been doing it on the quiet while guiding us and ended the day with over 180 - very impressive considering we had not been near to a wetland. It had been my biggest species total for the trip too, but my 95 was rather modest in comparison!  Not that I was at all concerned, it had been another superb day and I had seen five classy new birds.


Tuesday 6th October.  We had breakfast at 04:30 and failed to find the Stygian Owl again, we had been very fortunate to see it our first evening.  We did not get away from Boa Nova much before 05:30 and then it was almost a three hour drive to a Reserva Agua Boa, a small private reserve Ciro had obtained permission for us to visit. On the way Ciro pointed out a Graveteiro nest in a tree almost over the main road, how had they remained undiscovered until just over 20 years ago?  We drove to a nice-looking house in a small clearing on a hill but no one was about.  Ciro led us down a trail into the forest then off to a damp area where he started playing recordings of Bahia Tapaculo.  One soon responded from some distance but quickly came in to investigate.  It kept well hidden on its first pass but gave reasonable views on a second, a smart bird.  Also in the area, and particularly the clearing around the house, were Black Jacobin, White-fronted Nunbird, Swallow-wing, Blue-backed and White-crowned Manakins, Thrush-like Wren and Brazilian, Green-headed and White-bellied Tanagers. We left Agua Boa in sunshine and drove to an area where Ciro had seen Margaretta’s Hermit, Ciro driving down a very narrow track to park his car out of sight of any passers-by. It was the only area we visited where this was a concern.  After some searching Ciro heard a hermit calling. It sounded as if it was perched nearby but the habitat was boggy and thickly tangled and did not allow close approach. We crashed around and unsurprisingly it flew without our seeing it.  We tried another area nearby with no success before returning to where we knew there had been one. Ciro’s persistence finally paid off as we heard it calling again and this time eventually located it perched on a thin horizontal creeper.  Back on the main road we headed southeast to Camacan but the weather soon closed in, the first time it had really looked threatening all trip.  We stopped by the road at what was claimed to be the largest tree in Brazil (how could they possibly know?) but it was only just visible, with a bit of imagination, through the low cloud.   We continued to Camacan in the rain and checked into a basic but perfectly adequate motel, the Pousada Primavera.  The rain eased off and we headed out to visit a nearby patch of lowland forest where we might find Eastern Striped Manakin.  Along the road just outside of town we saw Black-necked Aracari and Golden-capped Parakeet before turning off on a narrow track.  We tried walking the track but birding was soon abandoned as the drizzle intensified and the light worsened.  The manakin would have to wait for the morning.  It was raining hard by the time we returned to Camacan and Ciro was slightly concerned as the dirt road up to Serra Bonita, where we were going in the morning, was very steep in places and was usually very slippery when wet, even with a 4WD.


Wednesday 7th.  We left Camacan soon after 05:00 and returned to the lowland forest patch we had tried the previous evening.  It was drizzling as we drove there and started raining more heavily when we arrived.  We saw nothing on a quick walk further up the track and decided to continue on to Serra Bonita, Eastern Striped Manakin occurring on the lower slopes.. We stopped on the lower slopes of Serra Bonita, seeing Yellow-fronted Woodpecker on the way and Golden-capped Parakeet on arrival.  In light rain Ciro heard a manakin.  It gave us the runaround for some time but was eventually found by Barry, superb.  A male White-bearded Manakin was very nice too.  We continued up a steep road on slippery mud for several kms before it became cobbled and much easier-going.  As the rain intensified we arrived at the very impressive research-centre and lodge where we met Vitor Becker on the veranda. He, with his wife Clemira Souza, had established the Serra Bonita private reserve.  During 1998-2001 they had bought 50 properties totalling over 2200 hectares of Atlantic forest.  Since then Vitor and Clemira had established a charitable foundation, Instituto Uiraçu, enabling a further 3700 hectares to be purchased.  On a clear day the view would have been superb but it was far from a clear day with the rain showing no sign of easing up.  Vitor told us the rain, which had started the previous day, was the first for weeks so our timing was unfortunate.  There were some excellent feeders on the veranda attracting tanagers and we spent some time watching them (and taking loads of photos) before driving a short distance to the accommodation block.  Our rooms had their own verandas looking out into the clouds.  We birded along the road, returning to the centre for lunch, the main meal of the day at Serra Bonita so not one I thought I should skip.  Sheltering from the rain in a barn while being serenading by a captive Red-browed Amazon was memorable, the parrot enjoying the rain much more than we were.  There were periods when the rain eased off somewhat and we managed to see Bahia Tyrannulet, Sharpbill, Grey-hooded Attila and the Atlantic forest race of Rufous-brown Solitaire.  We ended up spending a lot of time on the veranda watching the feeders, seeing Maroon-bellied Parakeet, White-necked Thrush, Green-headed, Red-necked and Azure-shouldered Tanagers and Chestnut-bellied Euphonia.  After an evening meal of soup, just as well I had had lunch, Vitor took us to see his moth collection in a de-humidified room in the basement.  It is the largest in Latin America and the result of a lifetime of collecting.  It can only be described as amazing, and I’m not usually at all interested in moths!  He has over 300,000 specimens of 35-40,000 species collected mainly in Brazil. Back at the accommodation block we switched on the moth light and regularly checked what had been attracted to it.


Thursday 8th.  We were up soon after 04:00 for a pre-dawn moth session.  It was dull and the clouds were low but it wasn’t actually raining.  At 05:00 we left to walk to the centre for breakfast, birding on the way.  It was initially too dark to see the birds that were calling although we did eventually see Spot-backed Antshrike.  After breakfast and a quick look at the feeders, which were as active as before, we headed up a steep trail to look for an undescribed Treehunter.  It took some tracking down and remained high in the canopy although we eventually had reasonable views of it.  More obliging were Black-throated Trogon, White-bibbed Antbird and White-throated Spadebill.  We returned to the lodge mid-morning and with a long journey ahead somewhat reluctantly left. Plumbeous Antvireo, Short-tailed Antthrush, Variegated Antpitta and Cinnamon-vented Piha remained heard-only, doubtless due to the weather but it slightly took the edge off our visit to this amazing place.  In the event we arrived at Almenara in Minas Gerais at 16:00.  We were still about two hours from the Stresemann’s Bristlefront reserve, tomorrow’s birding site, but Ciro was unsure if there would be rooms available in the only closer village – it had been full of construction workers when he had visited six weeks before – so we stayed in Almenara, in a fenced resort complex on the edge of town. It appeared to be a reasonable option and with no birding nearby Barry and I wandered around the grounds, seeing little. It was a shame we had not stayed a couple of hours longer at Serra Bonita as we might have had more luck with some of the ‘heards’.


9th October.  We left at 04:00 for the long drive to the Stresemann’s Bristlefront reserve.  Soon after dawn, while on a dirt road still some distance short of the reserve, a White-bellied Nothura crossed the road ahead of us and disappeared into a hedge, a sort of slow-run.  We piled out and it flew away across a large field as we approached.  Not a bad view considering.  The road soon worsened, culminating in a steep climb for several kms which would have been very difficult when wet.  We were pleased to finally arrive by an isolated and deserted house at 06:00 and after a quick breakfast set off up a trail into the remnant forest.  After about 20 minutes of steadily climbing, interrupted briefly by a close Crescent-chested Puffbird, Ciro pointed out a bank where a pair of Bristlefronts had nested the previous year. The nest was predated by an armadillo before the young could fledge and the parents had not been seen since.  We continued for another 15-20 minutes, still climbing through rather dry and fairly open woodland, to the top of a territory where Ciro had seen a pair with a juvenile six weeks earlier.  He played a recording and heard a very distant response well down in the valley below.  I barely heard it and it did not respond further.  The trail here was much flatter and we continued towards the head of the valley hoping for a further response but to no avail.  We returned to the top of the territory and tried again, hearing another distant call.  The bird was not moving any closer leaving us no option but to head down towards it.  It was a very steep slope but fairly easy to negotiate with small trees to hang on and not much ground vegetation to negotiate.  We continued down into a deep valley for 10-15 minutes until we could see the other side level with us.  We spent three hours in the area, initially feeling that we were close, but we heard nothing at all in the final hour and felt it must have slipped away unseen.  While looking for the Bristlefront Barry saw Black-cheeked and Rufous Gnateaters and White-throated Spadebill in quick succession;  I was sitting less than 10m away and failed to see even a movement.  It perhaps explained how one or two of us might have missed seeing the Bristlefront but that a thrush-sized bird managed to exit a reasonably open area that five birders were peering into was a great disappointment, although it not being at all responsive and only calling very occasionally did not help.  It was with a heavy heart that we climbed our way back up to the path, not a feeling we were used to with Ciro and sadly this was now the only territory he knew for the bird.  Perhaps if we had been on site at dawn it might have made a difference, not that we had been that late.  Unfortunately, we did not have a spare day to try again as we would really have liked to.  Tautapa and Brown Tinamous, the latter flushed off the trail by Ciro and Barry, Rufous Gnateater and a pair of Three-toed Jacamars on the walk back down to the car were some consolation as was a Striped Cuckoo when we arrived there.  On leaving the reserve we had to stop to open a gate and in so doing disturbed three East Brazilian Chachalacas that gave good views.  We continued around to the Bahia entrance to the park where the HQ was and where an accommodation block was being built.  We saw a few tanagers and four more Three-toed Jacamars while having a picnic lunch there.  We left the HQ just after 14:00 with a long drive to Puerto Seguro ahead.  Ciro took a short-cut on dirt roads to avoid having to return to Almenara.  We were almost back on the main road when we came to a river.  The ferry was on the other side which seemed unfortunate timing on our part, although even more unfortunate was that it had been there for some days as the river level was too low for it to operate.  We retraced our route, the ‘detour’ taking two hours, crossed the river at Almenara and headed for the coast, finally arriving at Puerto Seguro at 20:25.  On the outskirts of town a Tourist Information booth was staffed by young men on scooters who, after Ciro had negotiated, took us to a cheap hotel in town.  It turned out it only had double-beds but the Pousada Pedra Azul next door was fine, if one did not mind the odd cockroach and being flooded by an overflowing air-con unit.


10th October.  We left Puerto Seguro at 05:00 and drove to the forest at Veracel private reserve and further into it to a more open area.  We birded around here seeing Hook-billed Hermit, many Swallow-wings, Ringed Woodpecker, Bat Falcon, Reichenow’s Blue-headed Parrot and Bahia and Band-tailed Antwrens.  We also saw six Bare-throated Bellbirds and five White-winged Cotingas, including a male of each, visiting a fruiting tree.  We watched them coming and going for some time, feeding and occasionally perching up on an exposed branch.  Just the sort of behaviour we hoped a Banded Cotinga might adopt but if one did it remained unnoticed.  By 10:00 it was quite hot and activity had dropped right-off so we returned to Puerto Seguro.  The beach was a bit of a disappointment, high tide not helping, although there were two Semipalmated Plovers along the tideline and a distant Magnificent Frigatebird offshore.  Barry found an excellent ice-cream shop with several different flavours that we all sampled.  We returned to Veracel at 15:00 and birded along some narrow tracks until dark.  We heard a Brazilian Golden-Green Woodpecker but only saw it poorly as it flew over. A pair of Rufous-capped Antthrushes were excellent and we also saw Black-headed Berryeater and Cinereous Mourner well.  A pair of Red-browed Parrots flew over at dusk as we waited for the light to go.  Ciro tried taping a White-winged Potoo and almost immediately had a response.  He was as surprised as we were since it wasn’t an area of Veracel where he had encountered them before.  It soon came to investigate, perching on the top of a dead palm stump.  Amazing.  Half way back to the road through the reserve Ciro spotted a bird sitting above the track.  It initially looked like a crouching owl but improving the angle of view showed it to be a roosting Solitary Tinamou.  We walked a section of the road, hearing a distant Mottled Owl that would not come any closer and a little further on a Black-capped Screech Owl.  I thought it was a very distant too but Ciro was sure it was close and calling quietly.  He led us in and after a bit of crashing around through the thicker vegetation at the road-side soon spotlighted it.  It was superb.  We returned to Veracel for another pay-by-weight meal and to the Pousada Pedra Azul where the aircon had flooded our room, fortunately without getting much of our gear wet.


11th October.  Another early start leaving the hotel just after 04:30 and arriving at the open forest in Veracel reserve at 05:00 where two Pauraques were on the road at dawn.  A few parrots were flying over, including two Red-browed Amazon, and we saw a Blond-crested Woodpecker, but there was not much cotinga activity for an hour or so until the fruiting tree we had been watching the previous day was visited by Bare-throated Bellbirds, White-winged Cotingas and then then an immature male Banded Cotinga, my 121st and final new bird of the trip!  It was smaller than the White-winged, one of which took exception to it and chased it around a few times before it flew off.  It was an interesting bird with a blue rump and small blue patches (perhaps single feathers) on its vent, belly and mantle, and a single orange feather on its lower breast.  A full adult male would be stunning indeed.  Very happy with what we had seen in the fruiting tree we returned to one of the tracks visited the previous afternoon, seeing Rufous-capped Motmot, Hook-billed Hermit, Ringed Woodpecker and Blue-throated Parakeets but not the hoped-for Brazilian Golden-green Woodpecker.  By 09:30 it was hotting up and time to leave.  We returned to Puerto Seguro, showered, packed and returned to the ice-cream shop only to find it closed.  Not to be denied an ice-cream, the others went on to McDonalds but I felt anything else would be a disappointment and sat on a bench by the beach instead.  The tide was still well-in but about 25 Semipalmated Plovers flew over.  Ciro dropped us at the airport and we said a sad farewell.  He had been absolutely excellent, always in good spirits and had made the trip one of the best and most enjoyable I have done.  Barry and I started the long journey home with a two hour flight to Sao Paulo while Jon and Rod were also flying to Sao Paulo, but via Belo Horizonte and arriving a couple of hours after us. They were continuing on to southeastern Brazil, with Nick Preston, Neil Bostock and Duncan Brooks who were flying in with Iberia. Barry and I went to the arrivals hall to wait for them and met Adrian Rupp who would be guiding all 5 of them. We had a long chat with him before we met the others and all moved to the domestic Terminal to meet Jon and Rod.  It was the first time I had seen Neil for years although his infectious smile was instantly recognisable.  It was also the closest Nick and I had managed to a birding trip this year, a pity I didn’t have longer to join them.  Barry and I flew home to Heathrow via Madrid without mishap. 


It had been a superb trip, one of the best I had done.  NE Brazil is a destination that has a lot more to offer than might at first seem to be the case: some stunning birds, some very rare birds and some very rare, stunning birds.  The success of the trip was due in no small part to Ciro Albano who guided us brilliantly - we fully endorse his awesome reputation.  Barry, Jon and Rod were excellent companions, I’m particularly grateful to Barry and Jon for sharing their photos while Barry was the perfect room-mate.  Hopefully we'll team up again in the not too distant future.  


Posted by richard fairbank  


LIST OF BIRDS           KEY:  * = not seen by JH,  bold = new bird for JH


Greater Rhea,  Rhea americana,    7 en route to Murici

Solitary Tinamou, Tinamus solitarius,   1 roosting in a tree above the trail at Veracel

Little Tinamou, Crypturellus soui,    Heard at Veracel

* Brown Tinamou, Crypturellus obsoletus,    1 flushed at Stresemann’s Bristlefront reserve

Variegated Tinamou, Crypturellus variegatus,    1 seen at Veracel and another heard, 1 heard at Reserva Agua Boa

Small-billed Tinamou, Crypturellus parvirostris,    1 near Sao Desiderio

Tataupa Tinamou, Crypturellus tataupa,   1 on trail at Stresemann’s Bristlefront reserve

White-bellied Nothura, Nothura boraquira,    1 on the way to Camacan and 2 near Stresemann’s Bristlefront reserve

Fulvous Whistling-Duck, Dendrocygna bicolor,   Several at wetland en route to Chapada do Araripe

White-faced Whistling-Duck, Dendrocygna viduata,   Flocks seen on 4 dates

Black-bellied Whistling-Duck, Dendrocygna autumnalis,    A flock at wetland en route to Chapada do Araripe

Muscovy Duck, Cairina moschata,    2 at wetland en route to Chapada do Araripe

Brazilian Teal, Amazonetta brasiliensis,    up to 21 on 4 dates

White-cheeked Pintail, Anas bahamensis    2 at wetland en route to Chapada do Araripe

Southern Pochard, Netta erythrophthalma,    40 at wetland on the way to Chapada do Araripe

Masked Duck, Nomonyx dominica,    6 at wetland on the way to Chapada do Araripe

Rusty-margined Guan, Penelope superciliaris,    2 at Stresemann’s Bristlefront reserve and Veracel

White-browed Guan, Penelope jacucaca,    2 or 3 at Quixada

East Brazilian Chachalaca, Ortalis araucuan,   1 in flight at Chapada Diamantina and 2 or 3 heard, 3 seen at the entrance to the Stresemann’s Bristlefront reserve

Spot-winged Wood-Quail, Odontophorus capueira,     Heard at Stresemann’s Bristlefront reserve, Ciro said no point in looking for them as they would be easily seen with Adrian Rupp at Intervales

Least Grebe, Tachybaptus dominicus,    A few on a lake on the way to Quixada

Pied-billed Grebe, Podilymbus podiceps,  2 on the lake en route to Quixada

Neotropic Cormorant, Phalacrocorax brasilianus,    Several on the lake on the way to Quixada and 1 on the river near Almenara

Pinnated Bittern, Botaurus pinnatus,    1 at wetland near Murici

Striated Heron, Butorides striata,    1 or 2 on 4 dates

Cattle Egret, Bubulcus ibis,    Fairly common

Great Egret, Ardea alba,    Common

Snowy Egret, Egretta thula,    Common

Little Blue Heron, Egretta caerulea,    1 at Puerto Seguro coast

Turkey Vulture, Cathartes aura,    Common throughout

Lesser Yellow-headed Vulture, Cathartes burrovianus,    1 on the way to Quixada and near Murici

Black Vulture, Coragyps atratus,    Common throughout

King Vulture, Sarcoramphus papa,    1 at Boa Nova, 2 at Stresemann’s Bristlefront reserve

Grey-headed Kite, Leptodon cayanensis,     1 at Puerto Seguro

White-collared Kite, Leptodon forbesi,     A pair at Murici and 1 at Jaqueira, heard at Crasto Forest

Hook-billed Kite, Chondrohierax uncinatus,     1 in flight at Veracel  reserve

* Swallow-tailed Kite, Elanoides forficatus,     1 on 30th was the only record

* Pearl Kite, Gampsonyx swainsonii,     1 on the way to Murici

* Snail Kite, Rostrhamus sociabilis,     2 near Quixada

Crane Hawk, Geranospiza caerulescens,     1 at Crasto Forest and Reserva Agua Boa

Savanna Hawk, Heterospizias meridionalis,     1 on Serra Ibiapada and en route to Crato

Roadside Hawk, Rupornis magnirostris,     Widespread and common in small numbers

Harris's Hawk, Parabuteo unicinctus,     1 on the way to Crato was the only record

White-tailed Hawk, Geranoaetus albicaudatus,     3 at Terra Ronca, 1 at Serra Bonita

Black-chested Buzzard-Eagle, Geranoaetus melanoleucus,     1 perched high on a rocky outcrop by a lake on the way to Quixada

Mantled Hawk, Pseudastur polionotus,    1 at Jaqueira

Grey Hawk, Buteo nitidus,     1 near Sao Francisco Sparrow site

Short-tailed Hawk, Buteo brachyurus,     1 at Canudos, Crasto Forest, Chapada Diamantina and Terra Ronca  

Zone-tailed Hawk, Buteo albonotatus,     1 at Jaqueira and Reserva Agua Boa

Ornate Hawk-Eagle, Spizaetus ornatus,     A juv at Terra Ronca State Park

Limpkin, Aramus guarauna,    2 at wetland near Murici and at Camacan

* Grey-necked Wood-Rail, Aramides cajaneus,     2 at Quixada

Yellow-breasted Crake, Porzana plaviventer,    1 heard calling at wetland near Murici

Blackish Rail, Pardirallus nigricans,     Heard at Murici

Common Gallinule, Gallinula galeata,     Seen on 4 dates

Purple Gallinule, Porphyrio martinicus,     Only seen at a wetland near Crato

Southern Lapwing, Vanellus chilensis,    Common throughout

Black-necked Stilt, Himantopus mexicanus,     A few at a lake on the way to Crato and wetland at Boa Nova

Semi-palmated Plover,  Charadrius semipalmatus,     25 at Puerto Seguro coast

South American Snipe, Gallinago paraguaiae,   1 at Boa Nova  

Giant Snipe, Gallinago undulata,     2 at Boa Nova

Wattled Jacana, Jacana jacana,     Seen on 5 dates

Large-billed Tern, Phaetusa simplex,     15 on the Sao Francisco River

Common Ground-Dove, Columbina passerina,      Only noted on 30th

Plain-breasted Ground-Dove, Columbina minuta,     A few around Quixada  and Estancia

Ruddy Ground-Dove, Columbina talpacoti,     Common throughout

Scaled Dove, Columbina squammata,     Noted on 5 dates

Picui Ground-Dove, Columbina picui,     Common throughout

Scaled Pigeon, Patagioenas speciosa,     Fairly common

Picazuro Pigeon, Patagioenas picazuro,     A few at Terra Ronca and Boa Nova

Pale-vented Pigeon, Patagioenas cayennensis,     Only heard at Boa Nova

Plumbeous Pigeon, Patagioenas plumbea,     Only 1, at Serra Bonita

Eared Dove, Zenaida auriculata,    Recorded on 5 dates

White-tipped Dove, Leptotila verreauxi,     Fairly common

Squirrel Cuckoo, Piaya cayana,     Seen on 6 dates

Smooth-billed Ani, Crotophaga ani,     Common throughout

Guira Cuckoo, Guira guira,    Fairly common

Striped Cuckoo, Tapera naevia,    1 at Stresemann’s Bristlefront reserve, heard en route to Murici

Pheasant Cuckoo, Dromococcyx phasianellus,    1 at Terra Ronca State Park was one of the best birds of the trip, allowing repeated close views as it flew back and forth in the open woodland

Tropical Screech-Owl, Megascops choliba,    Heard at Terra Ronca SP

Black-capped Screech-Owl, Megascops atricapilla,     Great views of 1 calling at Veracel

Mottled Owl, Strix virgata,    Heard at Boa Nova and Veracel

Least/ East Brasilian Pygmy-Owl, Glaucidium minutissimum,      2 at Boa Nova, heard at Camacan and Serra Bonita

Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl, Glaucidium brasilianum,      1 seen at 2 sites and heard at 4 other sites

Burrowing Owl, Athene cunicularia,     1 at Canudos and Boa Nova

Stygian Owl, Asio stygius,    1 watched at night atop a pine tree from our hotel room at Boa Nova

White-winged Potoo, Nyctibius leucopterus,     1 gave good views atop a dead trunk at Veracel, and a second bird was seen there

Short-tailed Nighthawk, Lurocalis semitorquatus,      2 at Crasto Forest and near Sao Desiderio, heard at Serra Bonita  

Pauraque, Hydropsalis albicollis,      1 or 2 noted at 5 sites

Pygmy Nightjar, Hydropsalis hirundinacea,       5 at Quixade and 2 at Mata de Cipo

 Scissor-tailed Nightjar, Hydropsalis torquata,      1 at Boa Nova, 2 at Mata de Cipo

Least Nighthawk, Chordeiles pusillus,      3 flying high near Canudos

Biscutate Swift, Streptoprocne biscutata,      Flocks at Serra de Baturite, Quixada and near Palmeiras

Grey-rumped Swift, Chaetura cinereiventris,     Common from Boa Nova onwards

Fork-tailed Palm-Swift, Tachornis squamata,     1 at Quixada and Chapada de Araripe

* Lesser Swallow-tailed Swift, Panyptila cayennensis,     2 at Jaqueira

Hook-billed Hermit, Glaucis dohrnii,     2 on both days at Veracel

* Rufous-breasted Hermit, Glaucis hirsutus,     1 at Reserva Agua Boa

Broad-tipped Hermit, Anopetia gounellei,      2 at Quixada, 1 at Chapada de Araripe and 2 near Sao Francisco Sparrow site

Reddish Hermit, Phaethornis ruber,      1 on 6 dates

Planalto Hermit, Phaethornis pretrei,      2 at Quixada, 1 at Boa Nova

Margaretta's Hermit, Phaethornis margarettae,     2 at Reserva Agua Boa 

Scale-throated Hermit, Phaethornis eurynome,     A few at Serra Bonita, 1 at Stresemann’s Bristlefront reserve

Swallow-tailed Hummingbird, Eupetomena macroura,    1 on 7 dates, 2 at Mata de Cipo

Sombre Hummingbird, Aphantochroa cirrochloris,    1 at Jaqueira and a few at Serra Bonita

Black Jacobin, Florisuga fusca,    1 at Murici, Agua Boa and Veracel, a few at Serra Bonita

Grey-breasted Sabrewing, Campylopterus,      1 at Breginho das Amythista

White-vented Violetear, Colibri serrirostris,      1 at Chapada Diamantina on 1ST and in caatinga near the Sao Francisco Sparrow site

Black-throated Mango, Anthracothorax nigricollis,      1 at Mata de Cipo

Ruby-topaz Hummingbird, Chrysolampis mosquitus,        1 at Chapada do Araripe and Mata de Cipo

Blue-chinned Sapphire, Chlorostilbon notatus,      1 at Boa Nova

Glittering-bellied Emerald, Chlorostilbon lucidus,     1 or 2 on 6 dates

* Fork-tailed Woodnymph, Thalurania furcata,        1 at Serra Ibiapada

Long-tailed Woodnymph, Thalurania watertonii,       1 at Murici

Violet-capped Woodnymph, Thalurania glaucopis,       1 at Agua Boa and Veracel, 3 at Serra Bonita

Rufous-throated Sapphire, Hylocharis sapphirina,      2 at Veracel

White-chinned Sapphire, Hylocharis cyanus,     1 at Murici and Jaqueira, a few at Boa Nova and Agua Boa

* Plain-bellied Emerald, Amazilia leucogaster,      1 perched on a tele wire at Porto Seguro

Versicolored Emerald, Amazilia versicolor,       1 at Boa Nova

Glittering-throated Emerald, Amazilia fimbriata,      1 at Serra Ibiapada, Chapada Diamantina and a few at Mata de Cipo

Sapphire-spangled Emerald, Amazilia lactea,     1 at Mata de Cipo

Brazilian Ruby, Clytolaema rubricauda,    1 at Stresemann’s Bristlefront reserve

Hooded Visorbearer, Augastes lumachella,       4 at Chapada Diamantina

Black-eared Fairy, Heliothryx auritus,    1 at Jaqueira, Serra Bonita and Stresemann’s Bristlefront reserve

Horned  Sungem, Heliactin bilophus,     1 at Chapada Diamantina and in cerrado near Sao Desiderio

Stripe-breasted Starthroat, Heliomaster squamosus,       2 near Canudos and 1 at Mata de Cipo

White-tailed/Green-backed Trogon, Trogon viridis,      Heard at Serra Bonita and Stresemann’s Bristlefront reserve

Blue-crowned Trogon, Trogon curucui,       4 at Gamedeira forest and 2 near Sao Desiderio, heard at Crasto Forest

Black-throated Trogon, Trogon rufus,      2 at Serra Bonita, heard at 3 other sites

Ringed Kingfisher, Megaceryle torquata,      Seen at 4 sites

Amazon Kingfisher, Chloroceryle amazona,      1 en route to Lencois

Green Kingfisher, Chloroceryle americana,      A few at the lake en route to Quixada

Three-toed Jacamar, Jacamaralcyon tridactyla,     6 at Stresemann’s Bristlefront reserve

Rufous-tailed Jacamar, Galbula ruficauda,    1 at Jaqueira and  Boa Nova

Rufous-capped Motmot, Baryphthhengus ruficapillus,       1 at Veracel

Caatinga (Spot-backed)  Puffbird, Nystalus maculatus,      3 at Quixada, 1 at Terra Ronca

Crescent-chested Puffbird, Malacoptila striata,     1 at Boa Nova, Serra Bonita and Stresemann’s Bristlefront reserve

Rusty-breasted Nunlet, Nonnula rubecula,      2 at Terra Ronca

White-fronted Nunbird, Monasa morphoeus morphoeus,    3 at Agua Boa

Swallow-winged Puffbird, Chelidoptera tenebrosa,      3 at Agua Boa, a few at Stresemann’s Bristlefront reserve and common at Veracel

* Toco Toucan, Ramphastos toco,      1 at Terra Ronca

Channel-billed Toucan, Ramphastos vitellinus,       7 in a tree at wetland beyond Crasto Forest, 1 at Murici, Boa Nova and Stresemann’s Bristlefront reserve

Gould's Toucanet, Selenidera gouldii,       2 at Fazenda Gameleira

Spot-billed Toucanet, Selenidera maculirostris,       2 at Boa Nova, 1 at Serra Bonita and heard at Stresemann’s Bristlefront reserve

Saffron Toucanet, Pteroglossus bailloni,      2 at Boa Nova

Black-necked Aracari, Pteroglossus aracari,      4 at Boa Nova and Camacan, 1 at Serra Bonita

Golden-spangled Piculet, Picumnus exilis,    1 pernambucerisis at Murici and Jaqueira ,1 exilis at Boa Nova

Spotted Piculet, Picumnus pygmaeus,     2 at Gamedeira forest, the Sao Francisco Sparrow site and at Stresemann’s Bristlefront reserve, 1 near Canudos

Tawny Piculet, Picumnus fulvescens,        2 at Arajara Water Park, Crato and Boa Nova

Ochraceous Piculet, Picumnus limae,       2 at Guaramiranga, 1 at Quixada

White Woodpecker, Melanerpes candidus,      Heard at Agua Boa

Yellow-fronted Woodpecker,  Melanerpes flavifrons,       2 at Serra Bonita, heard at Breginho dos Amythista

Red-stained Woodpecker, Veniliornis affinis,      1 at Murici and Veracel

Little Woodpecker, Veniliornis passerinus,       2 at Serra Ibiapada, 3 at Chapada de Araripe and 1 at Sao Francisco Sparrow site

Checkered Woodpecker, Veniliornis mixtus,     1 in cerrado near the Goias border

Yellow-throated Woodpecker, Piculus flavigula,     2 at Serra Ronca, 3 at Serra Bonita, heard at Murici

Golden-green Woodpecker, Piculus chrysochloros,       1 at Agua Boa

Brazilian Golden-green Woodpecker, Piculus polyzonus,      1 in flight at Veracel

Green-barred Woodpecker, Colaptes melanochloros,      1 near Sao Francisco Sparrow site

Campo Flicker, Colaptes campestris,    2 at Stresemann’s Bristlefront reserve

Ochre-backed Woodpecker, Celeus ochraceus,     1 at Quixada and Breginho das Amythista, 3 at Terra Ronca

Blond-crested Woodpecker, Celeus flavescens tinnunculas,,      1 at Veracel

Ringed/Black-breasted Woodpecker, Celeus torquatus,     1 on both days at Veracel

Lineated Woodpecker, Dryocopus lineatus,      1 at Murici, 2 at Crasto Forest

Crimson-crested Woodpecker, Campephilus melanoleucos,      1 at Sao Desiderao

Red-legged Seriema, Cariama cristata,     Heard in cerrado near Sao Desiderao

Southern Caracara, Caracara plancus,      Common throughout

Yellow-headed Caracara, Milvago chimachima,       Common from 28th onwards

Laughing Falcon, Herpetotheres cachinnans,        2 at Crasto Forest, 1 at Chapada Diamantina and Boa Nova

Collared Forest-Falcon, Micrastur semitorquatus,      Heard at Crasto Forest

American Kestrel, Falco sparverius,       1 or 2 on 5 dates

Bat Falcon, Falco rufigularis,       2 at Veracel

* Aplomado Falcon, Falco femoralis,       A pair at Terra Ronca

Lear's Macaw, Anodorhynchus leari,        c.300 at the roost reserve near Canudos

Red-and-green Macaw, Ara chloropterus,       A pair at the cerrado near the Goias border

* Blue-winged Macaw, Primolius maracana,        A pair at Boa Nova

Red-shouldered Macaw, Diopsittaca nobilis,       5 at Murici

Blue-crowned Parakeet, Thectocercus acuticaudatus,     A few at Canudos  and Jaqueira, heard at Crasto Forest

Golden-capped Parakeet, Aratinga auricapillus,      10+ at Camacan and Serra Bonita, 8 near Crasto Forest

Jandaya Parakeet, Aratinga jandaya,       12 near Crasto Forest, 1 or 2 at Terra Ronca

Peach-fronted Parakeet, Eupsittula aurea,       Several near Crasto Forest and at Veracel, heard at Boa Nova

Cactus Parakeet, Eupsittula cactorum,       Common during the trip as far as Boa Nova

Blue-throated Parakeet, Pyrrhura cruentata,        c.10 at Veracel and Porto Seguro

Maroon-bellied Parakeet, Pyrrhura frontalis,        5 at Serra Bonita

Maroon-faced (White-eared) Parakeet, Pyrrhura leucotis,   1 at Stresemann’s Bristlefront reserve 

Grey-breasted Parakeet, Pyrrhura griseipectus,        10+ at Fazenda Gameleira

Pfrimer's Parakeet,  Pyrrhura pfrimeri,        40+ at Terra Ronca

Blue-winged Parrotlet, Forpus xanthopterygius,       A few at Quixada and Chapada do Araripe

Plain Parakeet, Brotogeris tirica,    A few at Jaqueira,  Agua Boa and Veracel

Yellow-chevroned Parakeet, Brotogeris chiriri,       A few at Serra da Ibiapaba, near Sao Francisco Sparrow site and near Correntina, heard at Boa Nova

Brown-backed Parrotlet, Touit melanonotus,       Heard at Boa Nova

Golden-tailed Parrotlet, Touit surdus,       8 near Crasto Forest, 6 at Boa Nova, a few at Stresemann’s Bristlefront reserve and heard at Serra Bonita 

Reichenow's Parrot (Blue-headed split), Pionus reichenowi,        2 at Veracel  

Scaly-headed Parrot, Pionus maximiliani,        A few near Sao Francisco Sparrow site and 2 at Boa Nova

Orange-winged Parrot, Amazona amazonica,       A few near Crasto Forest

Red-browed Parrot, Amazona rhodocorytha,       2 at Veracel

Stripe-backed Antbird, Myrmorchilus strigilatus,       2 at Chapada do Araripe, 1 at Boa Nova

Orange-bellied Antwren, Terenura sicki,    A pair at Jaqueira, very rare now

Streak-capped Antwren, Terenura maculata,    Heard at Boa Nova and Stresemann’s Bristlefront reserve

Band-tailed Antwren, Myrmotherula urosticta,      1 at Veracel

Alagoas Antwren, Myrmotherula snowi,       A pair at Murici, the only site known for this Critically Endangered species

Narrow-billed Antwren, Formicivora iheringi,      1 at Mata de Cipo

White-fringed Antwren, Formicivora grisea,       2 at Murici

Black-bellied Antwren, Formicivora melanogaster,       3 at Chapada do Araripe, 1 at Sao Francisco Sparrow site and at Serra Ronca

Rusty-backed Antwren, Formicivora rufa,       2 at Chapada Diamantina

Sincora Antwren, Formicivora grantsaui,         A pair at Chapada Diamantina

Cinereous Antshrike, Thamnomanes caesius,        2 at Boa Nova

Spot-breasted Antvireo, Dysithamnus stictothorax,   1 at Boa Nova, heard at Stresemann’s Bristlefront reserve

Plain Antvireo, Dysithamnus mentalis,       2 near Guaramiranga, 1 at Murici

Plumbeous Antvireo, Dysithamnus plumbeus,      Heard at Serra Bonita

Caatinga Antwren, Herpsilochmus sellowi,        A few at Chapada do Araripe

Bahia Antwren, Herpsilochmus pileatus,        2 at Veracel

Black-capped Antwren, Herpsilochmus atricapillus,       1 near Guaramiranga

Pectoral Antwren, Herpsilochmus pectoralis,       1 at Ciro’s site at Jeremboa between Canudos and Murici

Rufous-winged Antwren, Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus scapularis,       A pair at Murici and 1 at Boa Nova

Silvery-cheeked Antshrike, Sakesphorus cristatus,       Small numbers at 5 sites

Caatinga Barred Antshrike, Thamnophilus capistratus doliatus,       A pair at Quixada

Rufous-winged Antshrike, Thamnophilus torquatus,       1 at Murici and Chapada Diamantina

Chestnut-backed Antshrike, Thamnophilus palliatus,       2 at Boa Nova, heard at Agua Boa

Planalto Slaty-Antshrike, Thamnophilus pelzelni,       2 at Chapada do Araripe, 1 at Chapada Diamantina, Sao Francisco Sparrow site and Breginho dos Amythista

Sooretama Slaty-Antshrike, Thamnophilus ambiguus,       2+ at Veracel

Variable Antshrike, Thamnophilus caerulescens,        2 at Fazenda Gameleira

* White-shouldered Antshrike, Thamnophilus aethiops,        1 at Quixada

Great Antshrike, Taraba major,      1 at Quixada, 2 at Crato, heard at Chapada Diamantina and Boa Nova

Spot-backed Antshrike, Hypoedaleus guttatus,      1 at Serra Bonita, heard at Mata de Cipo

Tufted Antshrike, Mackenziaena severa,       1 at Boa Nova, heard at Mata de Cipo

Scalloped Antbird, Myrmoderus ruficaudus,     1 at Murici, 2 at Jaqueira

White-bibbed Antbird, Myrmoderus loricatus,     2 at Serra Bonita and Stresemann’s Bristlefront reserve

Pernambuco Fire-eye, Pyriglena pernambucensis,      4 at Murici

Fringe-backed Fire-eye, Pyriglena atra,     2 at Crasto Forest

White-shouldered/backed Fire-eye, Pyriglena leucoptera,      1 at Boa Nova, Stresemann’s Bristlefront reserve and 2 at Serra Bonita

Slender Antbird, Rhopornis ardesiacus,       3 at Mata de Cipo  

Rio de Janeiro Antbird, Cercomacra brasiliana,      2 at Boa Nova

Willis's Antbird, Cercomacra laeta,    1 at Jaqueira , heard at Stresemann’s Bristlefront reserve

Ferruginous Antbird, Drymophila ferruginea,     2 at Boa Nova

Scaled Antbird, Drymophila squamata,     1 at Boa Nova and Stresemann’s Bristlefront reserve, heard at Murici

Collared Crescentchest, Melanopareia torquata,      2 at Chapada Diamantina and in caatinga near the Sao Francisco Sparrow site

Rufous Gnateater, Conopophaga lineata,     1 at Boa Nova and Stresemann’s Bristlefront reserve

Ceara Gnateater, Conopophaga cearae,      2 at Guaramiranga

Hooded Gnateater, Conopophaga roberti,     2 at Gamedeira forest

Black-cheeked Gnateater, Conopophaga melanops, nigrifront,    1 at Murici and Stresemann’s Bristlefront reserve

Variegated Antpitta, Grallaria varia,     2 Heard at Serra Bonita

White-browed Antpitta, Hylopezus ochroleucus,      1 seen and 1 or 2 heard at Chapada de Araripe

Bahia Tapaculo, Eleoscytalopus psychopompus,       1 at Boa Nova

Diamantina Tapaculo, Scytalopus diamantinensis,       1 at Mucure

Stresemann's Bristlefront, Merulaxis stresemanni,      2 heard at the reserve, the only major dip of the trip

Rufous-capped Antthrush, Formicarius colma,     2 at Veracel

Short-tailed Antthrush, Chamaeza campanisona,       1 at Guaramiranga, heard at Serra Bonita

Such's/Cryptic Antthrush, Chamaeza meruloides,      Heard at Serra Bonita

Ceara Leaftosser - split off Rufous-breasted, Sclerurus cearensis,      1 at Gamedeira forest

Pernambuco/ Plain-brown Woodcreeper, Dendrocincla taunayi,     1 at Murici and Jaqueira

Plain-winged Woodcreeper, Dendrocincla turdina,      1 at Boa Nova and Veracel

Olivaceous Woodcreeper, Sittasomus griseicapillus,    1 at Terra Ronca, Boa Nova and Stresemann’s Bristlefront reserve

Wedge-billed Woodcreeper, Glyphorynchus spirurus     1 at Veracel

Northern Lesser Woodcreeper, Xiphorhynchus atlanticus,     1 at Gamedeira forest and Murici

Lesser Woodcreeper, Xiphorhynchus fuscus,     2 at Boa Nova

Buff-throated Woodcreeper, Xiphorhynchus guttatus,     1 at Veracel, heard at Agua Boa

Black-billed Scythebill, Campylorhamphus falcularius,    1 at Boa Nova, heard at Stresemann’s Bristlefront reserve

Red-billed Scythebill, Campylorhamphus trochilirostris,     1 at Breginho das Amythista

Straight-billed Woodcreeper, Dendroplex picus,      2 at Fazenda Gameleira, 1at Crato

Narrow-billed Woodcreeper, Lepidocolaptes angustirostris,      1 near Canudos

Wagler’s Woodcreeper, Lepidocolaptes wagleri  - split from Scaled,    1 at Terra Ronca

Scaled Woodcreeper, Lepidocolaptes squamatus,     1 at Breginho das Amythista, heard at Stresemann’s Bristlefront reserve

Todd's  Woodcreeper, Dendrocolaptes medius medius  – split from Amazonian Barred      3+ at Murici

Planalto Woodcreeper, Dendrocolaptes platyrostris,     1 at Guaramiranga  and Breginho dos Amythista

Moustached Woodcreeper, Xiphocolaptes falcirostris,     1 near Sao Desiderio and at Terra Ronca

Plain Xenops, Xenops minutus,     1 at Boa Nova and Veracel

* Streaked Xenops, Xenops rutilans,     1 at Terra Ronca and Boa Nova

Wing-banded/Band-tailed Hornero, Furnarius figulus,      3 at Fazenda Gameleira

Pale-legged Hornero, Furnarius leucopus,     1 at Guaramiranga, 2 at Quixada

Rufous Hornero, Furnarius rufus,     1 on 5 dates in the latter half of the trip

Pernambuco Foliage-gleaner , Automolus lammi,  split off White-eyed,    2 at Murici, heard at Crasto Forest

White-eyed Foliage-gleaner, Automolus leucophthalmus,     1 at Boa Nova and Serra Bonita, heard at Stresemann’s Bristlefront reserve

Great Xenops, Megaxenops parnaguae,      1 at Chapada do Araripe and near Canudos,  2 at Breginho das Amythista, heard at Chapada Diamantina

White-collared Foliage-gleaner, Anabazenops fuscus,      2 at Boa Nova

"Sharp-billed” Treehunter, Heliobletus sp.,     1 at Serra Bonita

Caatinga Cacholote, Pseudoseisura cristata,        2 en route to Tiangua on 23rd, 3 en route to Crato and 1 near Murici

Rufous-fronted Thornbird, Phacellodomus rufifrons,     2 at Boa Nova

Yellow-chinned Spinetail, Certhiaxis cinnamomeus,     1 at Quixada and Crasto Forest

Red-shouldered Spinetail, Synallaxis hellmayri,     A few at Chapada do Araripe and near Canudos

Bahia Spinetail, Synallaxis whitneyi,     2 at Boa Nova, heard at Stresemann’s Bristlefront reserve

Pinto's Spinetail, Synallaxis infuscata,     1 near Tamandare

Sooty-fronted Spinetail, Synallaxis frontalis,     1 at Quixada, 2 at Boa Nova

Pale-breasted Spinetail, Synallaxis albescens,      1 at Chapada Diamantina and Sao Francisco Sparrow site, heard at Boa Nova  

Pink-legged Graveteiro, Acrobatornis fonsecai,       3 at Boa Nova

Pallid Spinetail, Cranioleuca pallida,      1 at Serra Bonita

Grey-headed Spinetail, Cranioleuca semicinerea,      1 at Fazenda Gameleira

Striated Softtail, Thripophaga macroura,    1 at Boa Nova  and Stresemann’s Bristlefront reserve

Pale-bellied Tyrant-Manakin, Neopelma pallescens,      1 at Chapada do Araripe

Band-tailed Manakin, Pipra fasciicauda,      3 at Fazenda Gameleira

Red-headed Manakin, Ceratopipra rubrocapilla,      A few at Murici

White-bearded Manakin, Manacus manacus,     1 at Murici, Serra Bonita, Stresemann’s Bristlefront reserve and Veracel

(Eastern) Striped Manakin, Machaeropterus regulus regulus,      1 at Serra Bonita 

White-crowned Manakin, Dixiphia pipra,      1 at Agua Boa

Pin-tailed Manakin, Ilicura militaris,     1 at Breginho das Amythista and Serra Bonita, 2 at Boa Nova 

Blue-backed Manakin, Chiroxiphia pareola,     1 at Gamedeira forest , 2 or 3 at Murici, Jaqueira and Agua Boa

Swallow-tailed/ Blue Manakin, Chiroxiphia caudata,      1 at Boa Nova  and Serra Bonita

Araripe Manakin, Antilophia bokermanni,        8 at Arajara Water Park

Helmeted Manakin, Antilophia galeata,      3 at Breginho das Amythista

Sharpbill, Oxyruncus cristatus,      1 at Serra Bonita

Black-tailed Flycatcher, Myiobius atricaudus,      1 at Quixada

Thrush-like Schiffornis, Schiffornis turdina intermedia,     1 at Murici, heard at Agua Boa

Cinereous Mourner, Laniocera hypopyrra,      1 at Veracel

Buff-throated Purpletuft, Iodopleura pipra leucopiga,    1 at Murici

Black-tailed Tityra, Tityra cayana,      1 at Veracel

Chestnut-crowned Becard, Pachyramphus castaneus,      1 at Breginho das Amythista and Boa Nova

Black-capped Becard, Pachyramphus marginatus,      1 at Agua Boa

Screaming Piha, Lipaugus vociferans,     1 at Murici and Veracel, heard at Agua Boa

Cinnamon-vented Piha, Lipaugus lanioides,      Heard at Serra Bonita

White-winged Cotinga, Xipholena atropurpurea,       4 or 5 at Veracel

Bare-throated Bellbird, Procnias nudicollis,      Up to 6 at Veracel

Banded Cotinga, Cotinga maculata,       1 imm. Male at Veracel

Red-ruffed Fruitcrow, Pyroderus scutatus,    Heard at Boa Nova

Black-headed Berryeater, Carpornis melanocephala,     2 at Murici, 1 at Veracel

White-throated Spadebill, Platyrinchus mystaceus,     1 at Serra Bonita and Stresemann’s Bristlefront reserve, heard at Ibiapaba

Sepia-capped Flycatcher, Leptopogon amaurocephalus,       1 at Ibiapaba and Boa Nova, heard at Serra Bonita

Bahia Tyrannulet, Phylloscartes beckeri,        4 at Serra Bonita

Alagoas Tyrannulet, Phylloscartes ceciliae,      2 at Jaqueira

Minas Gerais Tyrannulet, Phylloscartes roquettei,       1 at Breginho das Amythista

Yellow-olive Flycatcher, Tolmomyias sulphurescens,       1 at Boa Nova and Serra Bonita

Yellow-breasted/Ochre-lored Flycatcher, Tolmomyias flaviventris,      1 at Ibiapaba, Quixada, Sao Francisco Sparrow site and Breginho das Amythista

Grey-headed/Yellow-lored Tody-Flycatcher, Todirostrum poliocephalum,      1 at Breginho das Amythista, Boa Nova and Serra Bonita

Common Tody-Flycatcher, Todirostrum cinereum,     4 at Quixada, Arajara Water Park, Sao Francisco Sparrow site and Stresemann’s Bristlefront reserve

Ochre-faced Tody-Flycatcher, Poecilotriccus plumbeiceps,       1 at Terra Ronca

Pernambuco” Eared Pygmy Tyrant, Myiornis sp.     3 at Jaqueira

Drab-breasted Pygmy-Tyrant, Hemitriccus diops,    1 at Boa Nova and Serra Bonita

White-bellied Tody-Tyrant, Hemitriccus griseipectus,  split from White-eyed,     2 at Murici

Stripe-necked Tody-Tyrant, Hemitriccus striaticollis,      1 at Crasto Forest, heard at Quixade

* Pearly-vented Tody-Tyrant, Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer,      1 at Sao Francisco Sparrow site, heard at Chapada do Araripe

Buff-breasted Tody-Tyrant, Hemitriccus mirandae,      2 at Guaramiranga

Fork-tailed Pygmy-Tyrant, Hemitriccus furcatus,      1 at Breginho das Amythista and Boa Nova

Black-tailed Flycatcher, Myiobus atricaudus,      1 at Arajara Water Park

Cliff Flycatcher, Hirundinea ferruginea,    1 at Canudos and Stresemann’s Bristlefront reserve

Slender-footed Tyrannulet, Zimmerius gracilipes,     1 at Fazenda Gameleira

Lesser Wagtail-Tyrant, Stigmatura napensis bahiae,      1 near Canudos

Greater Wagtail-Tyrant, Stigmatura budytoides gracilies,      2 in caatinga near Canudos,  

Tawny-crowned Pygmy-Tyrant, Euscarthmus meloryphus,      1 at Breginho das Amythista

Rufous-sided Pygmy-Tyrant, Euscarthmus rufomarginatus,      2 at at Chapada Diamantina

White-lored Tyrannulet, Ornithion inerme,    1 at Jaqueira

Rough-legged Tyrannulet, Tyranniscus burmeisteri,       1 at Boa Nova

Southern Beardless-Tyrannulet, Camptostoma obsoletum,      1 at Serra do Araripe and at Agua Boa

Yellow-bellied Elaenia, Elaenia flavogaster,      1 at Murici and Agua Boa, heard at Veracel

Plain-crested Elaenia, Elaenia cristata,     1 at Chapada Diamantina, 3 at Sao Francisco Sparrow site and 2 at Terra Ronca

Suiriri Flycatcher, Suiriri suiriri affinis,    1 in cerrado on the Goias border

Campo Chapada Flycatcher, Suiriri islerorum,      2+ in cerrado on the Goias border

Grey Elaenia, Myiopagis caniceps,     1 at Crasto Forest

Yellow Tyrannulet, Capsiempis flaveola,      2 at Boa Nova

Mouse-coloured Tyrannulet, Phaeomyias murina,      1 at Terra Ronca

Planalto Tyrannulet, Phyllomyias fasciatus,      2 at Fazenda Gameleira

Grey-backed Tachuri, Polystictus superciliaris,     2 at Chapada Diamantina

Grey-hooded Attila, Attila rufus,     2 at Serra Bonita

Bright-rumped Attila, Attila spadiceus,     Heard at Murici and Veracel

Piratic Flycatcher, Legatus leucophaius,     1 at Sao Paulo International airport

Short-crested Flycatcher, Myiarchus ferox,     1 at Boa Nova and Veracel

Brown-crested Flycatcher, Myiarchus tyrannulus,      1 at Arajara Water Park, Terra Ronca and Boa Nova, heard at Chapada Diamantina

Sibilant (Eastern) Sirystes, Sirystes sibilator sibilator,      2 at Terra Ronca

Greyish Mourner, Rhytipterna simplex,    1 at Murici and Serra Bonita, heard at Boa Nova and Stresemann’s Bristlefront reserve

Rufous Casiornis, Casiornis rufus,     1 at Terra Ronca

Ash-throated Casiornis, Casiornis fuscus,     2 near Sao Desiderio and at Boa Nova and Serra Bonita

Great Kiskadee, Pitangus sulphuratus,     Fairly common

Cattle Tyrant, Machetornis rixosa,     1 or 2 noted at 6 sites

Streaked Flycatcher, Myiodynastes maculatus,      1 at Fortaleza and Sao Francisco Sparrow site

Boat-billed Flycatcher, Megarynchus pitangua,     1 at 5 sites

Social Flycatcher, Myiozetetes similis,     Fairly common in small numbers

Tropical Kingbird, Tyrannus melancholicus,      Common and widespread

Fork-tailed Flycatcher, Tyrannus savana,     2 near the Goias border

Long-tailed Tyrant, Colonia colonus,      1 at Boa Nova

Bran-coloured Flycatcher, Myiophobus fasciatus,    1 at Jaqueira and Boa Nova

Southern Scrub-Flycatcher, Sublegatus modestus,     2 near Canudos

Black-backed Water-Tyrant, Fluvicola albiventer,     1 at Arajara Water Park

Masked Water-Tyrant, Fluvicola nengeta,      1 or 2 on 9 dates

White-headed Marsh Tyrant, Arundinicola leucocephala,     1 at Jaqueira, Chapada Diamantina and Stresemann’s Bristlefront reserve

Euler's Flycatcher, Lathrotriccus euleri,     1 at Arajara Water Park, Boa Nova and Serra Bonita

Tropical Pewee, Contopus cinereus,      1 at Serra Bonita, heard at Boa Nova

Caatinga Black-Tyrant, Knipolegus franciscanus,       2 near Sao Desiderio

Velvety Black-Tyrant, Knipolegus nigerrimus,     1 at Canudos

White Monjita, Xolmis irupero,      1 on the way to Murici, 5+ between Stresemann’s Bristlefront reserve and Veracel

Rufous-browed Peppershrike, Cyclarhis gujanensis,     Noted at 5 sites

Chivi Vireo, Vireo chivi,     1 at Murici, Crasto forest and Veracel

Grey-eyed Greenlet, Hylophilus amaurocephalus,      1 at Canudos, 2 at Chapada do Diamantina

White-naped Jay, Cyanocorax cyanopogon,       8 at Quixada, a few at Terra Ronca, 2 at Breginho das Amythista

Blue-and-white Swallow, Pygochelidon cyanoleuca,      3 at Canudos, several at Boa Nova and Serra Bonita

Southern Rough-winged Swallow, Stelgidopteryx ruficollis,     Fairly common and widespread

Brown-chested Martin, Progne tapera,     Only noted  on 29th and Oct 1st

Grey-breasted Martin, Progne chalybea,     Fairly common

White-winged Swallow, Tachycineta albiventer,     A few at Crato and Murici

Southern House Wren, Troglodytes musculus aedon,     1 at Arajara Water Park and Terra Ronca

Thrush-like Wren, Campylorhynchus turdinus turdinus,     2 at Agua Boa, heard at Serra Bonita

Moustached Wren, Pheugopedius genibarbis,      Commonly heard but only 1 seen at Guaramiranga and Jacqueira

Long-billed Wren, Cantorchilus longirostris bahiae,      1 at Quixada

Black-capped Donacobius, Donacobius atricapilla,     1 at Stresemann’s Bristlefront reserve

Long-billed Gnatwren, Ramphocaenus melanurus,     3 at Jaqueira, heard at Murici and Veracel

Tropical Gnatcatcher, Polioptila plumbea,      2 at Guaramiranga, Quixada and Chapada do Araripe

Rufous-brown Solitaire, Cichlopsis leucogenys,      1 at Serra Bonita, heard at Stresemann’s Bristlefront reserve. A rare form that might be split as a full species

Pale-breasted Thrush, Turdus leucomelas,      Fairly common from Fortaleza to Quixda, unseen after that

Rufous-bellied Thrush, Turdus rufiventris,      Widespread in small numbers

Creamy-bellied Thrush, Turdus amaurochalinus,      1 at Lencois, a few at Terra Ronca

White-necked Thrush, Turdus albicollis,      1 at Serra Bonita

Chalk-browed Mockingbird, Mimus saturninus,      Fairly common in small numbers

Rufous-collared Sparrow, Zonotrichia capensis,      Common and widespread except at at the coast

Grassland Sparrow, Ammodramus humeralis,    1 at Murici and Chapada Diamantina, a few at Terra Ronca

Pectoral Sparrow, Arremon taciturnus,    2 at Arajara Water Park, 1 at Serra Bonita  and Stresemann’s Bristlefront reserve

Sao Francisco Sparrow, Arremon franciscanus,      2 at site beyond Palmeiras

* Tropical Parula, Setophaga pitiayumi,      1 at Boa Nova, heard at Ibiapaba forest

Southern Masked Yellowthroat, Geothlypis aequinoctialis velata,      1 at wetland near Crasto Forest and Breginho das Amythista

Golden-crowned Warbler, Basileuterus culicivorus,     1 noted at 5 sites

Flavescent Warbler, Myiothlypis flaveola,     1 at Ibiapaba forest and Chapada do Araripe

Crested Oropendola, Psarocolius decumanus,      1 at Fazenda Gameleira

Red-rumped Cacique, Cacicus haemorrhous,      1 at Crasto Forest, a few at Boa Nova, Agua Boa and Veracel

Yellow-rumped Cacique, Cacicus cela,      2 at Agua Boa, several at Serra Bonita

Variable/Epaulet Oriole, Icterus pyrrhopterus/ cayanensis,      1 at Fazenda Gameleira and Chapada do Araripe

Campo Troupial, Icterus jamacaii,      1 en route to Crato, fairly common from Sao Desiderio onwards with a max of 16 feeding on rotting fruit outside a restaurant

Chopi Blackbird, Gnorimopsar chopi,      Fairly common from Lencois onwards

Forbes's Blackbird, Curaeus forbesi,      Only 1, near Tamandare

Pale Baywing, Agelaioides fringillarius,      2 en route to Tiangua on 23rd, a few en route to Lencois

Shiny Cowbird, Molothrus bonariensis,      Small flocks at 5 sites

White-browed Blackbird, Sturnella superciliaris,      2 en route to Murici

Bananaquit, Coereba flaveola,      Widespread in small numbers

Black-throated Saltator, Saltatricula atricollis,    1 at Chapada Diamantina, 2 at Terra Ronca

Buff-throated Saltator, Saltator maximus,     1 at Crasto Forest and Serra Bonita, 2 at Veracel

Green-winged Saltator, Saltator similis,    1 at Stresemann’s Bristlefront reserve

Scarlet-throated Tanager, Compsothraupis loricata,     8 at Quixada, 6 at Chapada Diamantina, heard at Stresemann’s Bristlefront reserve

White-rumped Tanager, Cypsnagra hirundinacea,      3 near Sao Francisco Sparrow site

White-lined Tanager, Tachyphonus rufus,    2 at Arajara Water Park and Chapada do Araripe, 1 at Stresemann’s Bristlefront reserve

Brazilian Tanager, Ramphocelus bresilius,     1 at Jaqueira, a few at Agua Boa

Flame-crested Tanager, Lanio cristatus,     1 at Murici, Breginho dos Amythista and Veracel, a few at Boa Nova

Pileated Finch, Lanio pileatus,      1 or 2 at 4 sites including near Canudos

White-bellied Tanager - split off Turquoise, Tangara brasiliensis,       2 at Agua Boa, 1 at Veracel on both days

Silver-breasted Tanager - split off Opal-rumped , Tangara cyanomelas,     2 at Murici

Green-headed Tanager, Tangara seledon,      Several at Boa Nova and the Serra Bonita feeders, 1 at Agua Boa

Seven-coloured Tanager, Tangara fastuosa,     Only 1, at Quiombo Park Hotel

Red-necked Tanager, Tangara cyanocephala cearensis,       1 at Tiangua, Murici and Breginho dos Amythista, several at Boa Nova and Serra Bonita

Gilt-edged Tanager, Tangara cyanoventris,     A few at Boa Nova and Stresemann’s Bristlefront reserve

Sayaca Tanager, Tangara sayaca,      Fairly common and widespread

Azure-shouldered Tanager, Tangara cyanoptera,      A few at Serra Bonita feeders  

Palm Tanager, Tangara palmarum,      Widespread and common

Golden-chevroned Tanager, Tangara ornata,    1 at Guaramiranga and a few at Stresemann’s Bristlefront reserve

Burnished-buff Tanager, Tangara cayana,       1 at Ibiapaba and Murici, fairly common from Boa Nova onwards

White-banded/ Shrike-like Tanager, Neothraupis fasciata,      2 or 3 in the cerrado on 3 dates

Magpie Tanager, Cissopis leverianus,     2 at Stresemann’s Bristlefront reserve

Cinnamon Tanager, Schistochlamys ruficapillus,      2 at Chapada do Araripe

Red-cowled Cardinal, Paroaria dominicana,     Small numbers on 7 dates

Blue Dacnis, Dacnis cayana,      1 at forest near Tiangua,  2 at Murici

Green Honeycreeper, Chlorophanes spiza,      Several at Serra Bonita feeders

Guira Tanager, Hemithraupis guira,     1 at Fazenda Gameleira, Murici and Terra Ronca

Rufous-headed Tanager, Hemithraupis ruficapilla,      A few at Boa Nova

Stripe-tailed Yellow-Finch, Sicalis citrina,     2 at Chapada Diamantina

Saffron Finch, Sicalis flaveola,     1 at Guaramiranga, several at Serra Bonita and Stresemann’s Bristlefront reserve

Pale-throated Serra-Finch, Embernagra longicauda,      2 at Chapada Diamantina

Blue-black Grassquit, Volatinia jacarina,     Several on at least 5 dates

* Plumbeous Seedeater, Sporophila plumbea,      1 at Terra Ronca

Yellow-bellied Seedeater, Sporophila nigricollis,      1+ on the Mucure farmland

Dubois's Seedeater, Sporophila ardesiaca,  - split off Yellow-bellied,     1 at Serra Bonita

White-throated Seedeater, Sporophila albogularis,       Several on 4 dates

White-bellied Seedeater, Sporophila leucoptera,      Several on the Mucure farmland

Cooper Seedeater, Sporophila bouvreuil - split from Capped,    A few on the Mucure farmland

Red/Lowland Hepatic Tanager, Piranga flava,      2 at Sao Francisco Sparrow site

Red-crowned Ant-Tanager, Habia rubica,      3 at Boa Nova, heard at Agua Boa

Yellow-green Grosbeak, Caryothraustes canadensis,      1 at Boa Nova, 2 at Veracel, heard at 3 other sites

Ultramarine Grosbeak, Cyanoloxia brissonii,      1 at Quixada and at Serra Bonita feeders

Purple-throated Euphonia, Euphonia chlorotica,      1 or 2 on 4 dates

Violaceous Euphonia, Euphonia violacea,    1 at Serra Bonita and Stresemann’s Bristlefront reserve

Orange-bellied Euphonia, Euphonia xanthogaster,     1 at Boa Nova and Agua Boa, common at Serra Bonita feeders

Chestnut-bellied Euphonia, Euphonia pectoralis,      1 at Boa Nova, common at Serra Bonita feeders

Blue-naped Chlorophonia, Chlorophonia cyanea,      1 at Boa Nova

Common Waxbill, Estrilda astrild,     Only a few noted at Boa Nova

House Sparrow, Passer domesticus,    Abundant



White-tufted Marmoset, Callithrix jacchus,     1 at Arajara Water Park, 4 at the Lear’s Macaw site

Black-tufted Marmoset, Callithrix kuhlii,   1 near Sao Desiderio

Crab-eating Fox, Cerdocyon thous,     1 near the Sao Francisco sparrow site and 1 near Sao Desiderio  

Sloth sp.    1 at Boa Nova.

Three-toed Sloth    1 at Veracel

Armadillo, Dasypus sp.    1 at  Veracel

Howler Monkeys Alouatta sp.    calling at Breginho das Amythista or Boa Nova, and Veracel.


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